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hello friends i'm so glad to have a stage to show my thought with you nomatter if we know each other or not.In my view, just to talk out ours heart to your friends. I like to make friends with you.
  • never love me once more(原创歌词)

    2008-06-22 20:43:12

    Walking in the familiar streets 
                               memory appears once again
                  The picture of sweetness and happiness
                                             being far far away from me now
               In the rainy night you left
                                               promises became lie for an instant
                I locked myself in the room solely
                                       before wound didn’t heal up
       don’t say you love again
                                Why on earth are we always detaching and getting together
       perhaps it will be better to be apart for us
                                                    no result in such kind of love
           don’t say you love me again
                           why did you leave me so cruelly originally
        you hurt me time by time
    you cheat me time by time
       when he was embracing you in his arms
                                               Have you been thinking of me
                               when you were canoodling 
                However what I could do was to hide in the deplorable night with tears
       now you want to be back
                                                         But you never think about my feelings
                                when talking about those illusive promises
             I feel that you are so shameless so despicable
     
  • When You Are Gone

    2008-06-13 17:34:38

    When You Are Gone        By Avril Lavigne

     

    I always needed time on my own

    I never thought I'd need you there when I cried

    And the days feel like years when I'm alone

    And the bed where you lie is made up on your side

    When you walk away

    I count the steps that you take

    Do you see how much I need you right now?

    When you're gone

    The pieces of my heart are missing you

    When you're gone

    The face I came to know is missing too

    When you're gone

    The words I need to hear to always get me through the day and make it ok

    I miss you

    I’ve never felt this way before

    Everything that I do reminds me of you

    And the clothes you left, they lie on my floor

    And they smell just like you

    I love the things that you do

    When you walk away

    I count the steps that you take

    Do you see how much I need you right now?

    When you're gone

    The pieces of my heart are missing you

    When you're gone

    The face I came to know is missing too

    When you're gone

    The words I need to hear to always get me through the day and make it OK

    I miss you

    We were meant for each other

    Out here forever

    I know we were

    All I ever wanted was for you to know

    Everything I do I give my heart and soul

    I can hardly breathe

    I need to feel you here with me

    Yeah

    When you're gone

    The pieces of my heart are missing you

    When you're gone

    The face I came to know is missing too

    When you're gone

    The words I need to hear will always get me through the day and make it OK

    I miss you

  • my favorate singer

    2008-06-13 17:31:44

     

    狂野不羁的性格,爆发力十足的歌喉,不甘被现实束缚的灵魂,以及无所畏惧自信和决心,塑造了全世界歌迷为之疯狂的加拿大摇滚小天后艾薇儿。

    艾薇儿于1984年9月30日出生在加拿大安大略地区一个只有5千人的纳帕尼镇。她在12岁的时候已经开始自己动手创作歌曲,同时还自学会了弹奏吉他。11年级的时候,毅然决定停止上学,专心从事音乐事业。

    2002年,只有17岁的艾薇儿的首张个人专辑《Let Go》正式发行。她以充满活力而又纯净清澈的唱腔,无所拘束的摇滚风格使世界摇滚歌迷为之疯狂。从2004年第二张个人专辑《Under My Skin》开始,艾薇儿的歌曲开始出现了相对安静的抒情歌。她一路都在追寻属于自己的歌唱风格。她的每一张专辑其实都记载了她在创作和歌唱方面的足迹。在第三张专辑《The Best Damn Thing》中,她充分挖掘出自己在摇滚方面的才能,整张专辑充满了热闹的吉他演奏,尽情的宣泄和叛逆的摇滚风格。

    艾薇儿在音乐上追求的独特奔放风格,与她的个性有着密不可分的联系。 刚出道时,她说“我才刚出道,我要清楚地做自己,我写出自己的感受,从不在乎其他人怎么想”。正是这种无拘无束的个性使她在音乐上不断取得惊人的突破,成为风靡全球的摇滚女歌手。她对音乐,时尚和个性的定义为许多处在叛逆期的年青人所追求。

     

  • 美国必读文学

    2008-06-04 17:00:50

     

    美国文学必读  2006-1-10 18:07:00  〓Emilie〓


    美国文学   
    1、Benjamin Franklin本杰明·富兰克林1706-1790 A Modest Inquiry into the Nature and Necessity of a Paper Money;Poor Richard’s Almanack穷查理历书;The Way to Wealth致富之道;The Autobiography自传   
    2、Thomas Paine托马斯·潘恩1737-1809 The Case of the Officers of Excise税务员问题;Common Sense常识;American Crisis美国危机;Rights of Man人的权利:Downfall of Despotism专制体制的崩溃;The Age of Reason理性时代   
    3、Philip Freneau菲利普·弗伦诺1752-1832 The Rising Glory of America蒸蒸日上的美洲;The British Prison Ship英国囚船;To the Memory of the Brave Americans纪念美国勇士-----同类诗中最佳;The Wild Honeysuckle野生的金银花;The Indian Burying Ground印第安人殡葬地   
    4、Washington Irving华盛顿·欧文1783-1859 A History of New York纽约的历史-----美国人写的第一部诙谐文学杰作;The Sketch Book见闻札记The Legend of Sleepy Hollow睡谷的传说-----使之成为美国第一个获得国际声誉的作家;Bracebridge Hall布雷斯布里奇田庄;Talks of Travellers旅客谈;The Alhambra阿尔罕伯拉   
    5、James Fenimore Cooper詹姆斯·费尼莫尔·库珀1789-1851 The Spy间谍;The Pilot领航者;The Littlepage Manuscrīpts利特佩奇的手稿;Leatherstocking Tales皮裹腿故事集:The Pioneer拓荒者;The Last of Mohicans最后的莫希干人;The Prairie大草原;The Pathfinder探路者;The Deerslayer杀鹿者   
    6、William Cullen Bryant威廉·柯伦·布莱恩特1794-1878 The Poems1821/1932诗选:To a Waterfowl致水鸟-----英语中最完美的短诗;Thanatopsis死亡随想---受墓园派影响; The Whitefooted Deer白蹄鹿;A Forest Hymn森林赋;The Flood of Years似水流年   
    7、Edgar Allan Poe埃德加·爱伦·坡1809-1849(以诗为诗;永为世人共赏的伟大抒情诗人-----叶芝) Tales of the Grotesque and Arabesque怪诞奇异故事集;Tales故事集;The Fall of the House of Usher厄舍古屋的倒塌;Ligeia莱琪儿;Annabel Lee安娜贝尔·李-----歌特风格;首开近代侦探小说先河,又是法国象征主义运动的源头
    Tamerlane and Other Poems帖木儿和其他诗;Al Araaf,Tamerlane and Minor Poems艾尔·阿拉夫,帖木儿和其他诗;The Raven and Other Poems乌鸦及其他诗:The Raven乌鸦;The City in the Sea海城;Israfel 伊斯拉菲尔;To Hellen致海伦   
    8、Ralf Waldo Emerson拉尔夫·沃尔多·爱默生1803-1882 Essays散文集:Nature论自然-----新英格兰超验主义者的宣言书;The American Scholar论美国学者;Divinity;The Oversoul论超灵;Self-reliance论自立;The Transcendentalist超验主义者;Representative Men代表人物;English Traits英国人的特征;School Address神学院演说
    Concord Hymn康考德颂;The Rhodo杜鹃花;The Humble Bee野蜂;Days日子-首开自由诗之先河   
    9.Nathaniel Hawthorne纳撒尼尔·霍桑1804-1864
     Twice-told Tales尽人皆知的故事;Mosses from an Old Manse古屋青苔:Young Goodman Brown年轻的古德曼·布朗;The Scarlet Letter红字;The House of the Seven Gables有七个尖角阁的房子--------心理若们罗曼史;The Blithedale Romance福谷传奇;The Marble Faun玉石雕像   
    10、Henry David Threau亨利·大卫·梭罗1817-1862 Wadden,or Life in the Woods华腾湖或林中生活;Resistance to Civil Government/Civil Disobedience抵制公民政府;A Week on the Concord and Merrimack Rivers    
    11、Walt Whitman沃尔特·惠特曼1819-1892 Leaves of Grass草叶集:Song of the Broad-Axe阔斧之歌;I hear America Singing我听见美洲在歌唱;When Lilacs Lost in the Dooryard Bloom’d小院丁香花开时;Democratic Vistas民主的前景;The Tramp and Strike Question流浪汉和罢工问题;Song of Myself自我之歌   
    12、Herman Melville赫尔曼·梅尔维尔1819-1891 Moby Dick/The White Whale莫比·迪克/白鲸;Typee泰比;Omoo奥穆;Mardi玛地;Redburn雷得本;White Jacket白外衣;Pierre皮尔埃;Piazza广场故事;Billy Budd比利·巴德   
    13、Henry Wadsworth Longfellow亨利·沃兹沃思·朗费罗1807-1882 The Song of Hiawatha海华沙之歌----美国人写的第一部印第安人史诗;Voices of the Night夜吟;Ballads and Other Poens民谣及其他诗;Belfry of Bruges and Other Poems布鲁茨的钟楼及其他诗;Tales of a Wayside Inn路边客栈的故事---诗集:An April Day四月的一天/A Psalm of Life人生礼物/Paul Revere’s Ride保罗·里维尔的夜奔;Evangeline伊凡吉琳;The Courtship of Miles Standish迈尔斯·斯坦迪什的求婚----叙事长诗;Poems on Slavery奴役篇---反蓄奴组诗   
    14、John Greenleaf Whittier约翰·格林里夫·惠蒂埃1807-1892 Poems Written During the Progress of the Abolition Question废奴问题;Voice of Freedom自由之声;In War Time and Other Poems内战时期所作;Snow-Bound大雪封门;The Tent on the Beach and Other Poems海滩的帐篷
    Ichabod艾卡博德;A Winter Idyl冬日田园诗   
    15、Harriet Beecher Stowe哈丽特·比彻·斯托1811-1896 Uncle Tom’s Cabin汤姆叔叔的小屋;A Tale of the Great Dismal Swamp德雷德阴暗大沼地的故事片;The Minister’s Wooing牧师的求婚;The Pearl of Orr’s Island奥尔岛的珍珠;Oldtown Folks老城的人们   
    16、Frederick Douglass弗莱德里克·道格拉斯1817-1895 Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass an American Slave弗莱德里克·道格拉斯,一个美国黑人的自述/My Bondage and My Freedom我的枷锁与我的自由/The life and Time of Frederick Douglass弗莱德里克·道格拉斯的生平与时代   
    17、Emily Dickinson埃米莉·迪金森1830-1886 The Poems of Emily Dichenson埃米莉·迪金森诗集-----“Tell all the truth and tell it slant”迂回曲折的,玄学的   
    18、Mark Twain马克·吐温(Samuel Longhorne Clemens)---美国文学的一大里程碑 The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras County加拉维拉县有名的跳蛙;The Innocent’s Abroad傻瓜出国记;The Gilded Age镀金时代;The Adventures of Tom Sawyer汤姆·索耶历险记;The Prince and the Pauper王子与贫儿;The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn哈克贝利·费恩历险记;A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur’s Court亚瑟王宫中的美国佬;The Tragedy of Pudd’nhead Wilson傻瓜威尔逊;Personal Recollections of Joan of Arc冉·达克;The Man That Corrupted Hadleyburg败坏哈德莱堡的人
    How to Tell a Story怎样讲故事---对美国早期幽默文学的总结   
    19、Francis Bret Harte哈特1836-1902 The Luck of Roaring Camp咆哮营的幸运儿------乡土文学作家   
    20、William Dean Howells 威廉·狄恩·豪威尔斯1837-1920 The Rise of Silas Lapham赛拉斯·拉帕姆的发迹;A Modern Instance现代婚姻; A Hazard of Now Fortunes时来运转;A Traveller from Altruia从利他国来的旅客;Through the Eye of the Needle透过针眼----乌托邦小说;Criticism and Fiction;Novel-Writing and Novel-Reading小说创作与小说阅读   
    21、Henry Adams享利·亚当斯1838-1918 History of the United States During the Administration of Jefferson and Madison(历史著作);The Education of Henry Adams:An Autobiography享利·亚当斯的教育   
    22、William James威廉·詹姆斯1842-1910(首提“意识流”理论) Principles of Psychology心理学原理;The Will to Believe信仰的意志;Pragmatism:A New Name for Some Old Ways of Thinking实用主义:某些旧思想方法的新名称;The Meaning of Truth真理的意义   
    23、Henry James享利·詹姆斯1843-1916 小说:Daisy Miller苔瑟·米乐;The Portrait of a Lady贵妇人画像;The Bostonians波士顿人;The Real Thing and Other Tales真货色及其他故事;The Wings of the Dove鸽翼;The Ambassadors大使;The Golden Bowl金碗
    评论集:French Poets and Novelists法国诗人和小说家;Hawthorne霍桑;Partial Portraits不完全的画像;Notes and Reviews札记与评论;Art of Fiction and Other Essays小说艺术   
    24、Ambrose Bierce安布罗斯·毕尔斯1842-1914? 小品集:The Fiend’s Deligh魔鬼的乐趣;Nuggests and Dust Panned out in California在加利福尼亚淘出的金块和金粉;Cobwebs from an Empty Skull来自空脑壳的蜘蛛网
    短篇小说集:Tales of Soldiers and Civilians军民故事;In the Midst of Life在人生中间;Can Such Things Be?这种事情可能吗?The Devil’s Dictionary魔鬼词典(The Applicant申请者)   
    25、Edward Bellamy爱德华·贝拉米1850-1898 Looking Backward:2000-1887回顾:从2000看1887年;Equality平等;The Duke of  Sockbridge:A Romance of Shay’s Rebellion斯托克布里奇的公爵:雪司起义的故事;The Blindman’s World and Other Stories育人的世界及其他   
    26、Edwin Charles Markham马卡姆1852-1940 The Man With the Hoe荷锄人   
    27、Charles Waddell Chesnutt查尔斯·契斯纳特1858-1932 The Conjure Woman巫女;The Wife of His Youth and Other Stories of the Color Line他青年时代的妻子(The Sheriff’s Children警长的儿女)(the pioneer of the color line);The Marrow of Tradition一脉相承   
    28、Hamlin Garland汉姆林·加兰1860-1940 Crumbling Idol崩溃的偶像(真实主义veritism);Man Travelled Roads大路(The Return of a Private三等兵归来);Rose of Ducher’s Cooly荷兰人山谷中的露斯;A Son of the Middle Border中部边地农家子   
    29、O·Henry欧·享利(William Sidney Porter)1862-1910 The Man Higher Up黄雀在后;Sixes and Sevens七上八下   
    30、Edith Wharton伊迪斯·华顿1862-1937 The House of Mirth欢乐之家;Ethan Frome;Bunner Sister班纳姐妹;The Age of Innocent天真时代;The Customs of the Country乡村习俗;A Backward Glance回首往事   
    32、George Santayana桑塔亚那1863-1952 Scepticism and Animal Faith怀疑主义与动物性信仰;The Realms Being存在诸领域(本质/物质/真理/精神领域:4卷)(Relativity of Knowledge);Three Philosphical Poets三大哲学诗人;Poems(A Minuet:On Reaching the Age of Fifty小步舞曲:五十书怀);The Last Puritan最后的清教徒   
    33、William E·B Dubois威廉·艾伯·杜波依斯1868-1963 Souls of Black Folk黑人的灵魂(Of Booker T Washington and Others);The Suppression of the African Slave Trade into the USA制止非洲奴隶贸易进入美国;The Philadephia Negro;John Brown;The Black Flame黑色的火焰(三部曲)   
    34、Edgar Lee Masters埃德加·李·马斯特斯1868-1950 A Book of Verse诗集;Maximilian马克西米连(诗集);
    Spoon River Anthology斯普恩河诗集(Lucinda Matlock鲁欣达·马物罗克)   
    35、Edwin Arlington Robinson鲁宾逊1869-1935 Captain Craig克雷格上尉---诗体小说;The Town Down the River河上的城镇;The Man Against the Sky衬托着天空的人;Avon’s Harvest沃冯的收成;Collected Poems诗集   
    36、Frank Norris弗兰克·诺里斯1870-1902 Moran of the Lady Letty茱蒂夫人号上的莫兰(romantic);Mc-Teague麦克提格(naturalistic);The Epic of the Wheat(realistic)小麦诗史(The Octopus章鱼,The Pit小麦交易所);A Deal in Wheat and Other Stories of the Old and New West小麦交易所及其他新老西部故事   
    37、Stephen Crane斯蒂芬·克莱恩1871-1900 Magic:A Girl of the Streets街头女郎梅姬(美国文学史上首次站在同情立场上描写受辱妇女的悲惨命运);The Red Badge of Courage红色英勇勋章;The Open Boat小划子;The Bride Comes to Yellow Sky新娘来到黄天镇   
    38、Theodore Dreiser西奥多·德莱塞1871-1945 Sister Carrie嘉莉姐妹;Jennie Gerhardt珍妮姑娘;Trilogy of Desire欲望三部曲(Financer金融家,The Titan巨人,The Stoic);An American Tragedy美国的悲剧(被称为美国最伟大的小说);Nigger Jeff黑人杰弗   
    39、Paul Laurence Dumbar保尔·劳伦斯·邓巴1872-1906 We Wear the Mask我们带着面具
    他是美国第一个有成就的黑人诗人,被称为“黑种人的桂冠诗人”(Poet Laureate of the Negro Race)   
    40、Jack London杰克·伦敦1876-1916 The Son of the Wolf狼之子,The Call of the Wild野性的呼唤;The Sea-wolf海狼;White Fang白獠牙;The People of the Abyss深渊中的人们;The Iron Heel铁蹄;Marti Eden马丁·伊登;How I become a Socialist我怎样成为社会党人;The War of the Classes阶级之间的战争;What Life Means to Me生命对我意味着什么;Revolution革命;Love of Life热爱生命;The Mexican墨西哥人;Under the Deck Awings在甲板的天蓬下   
    41、Upton Sinclair厄普顿·辛克莱尔1878-1968 Spring and Harvest春天与收获;The Jungle屠场(揭发黑幕运动的代表作家);King Coal煤炭大王;Oil石油;Boston波士顿;Dragon’s Teeth龙齿   
    42、Irving Babbitt欧文·白壁德1865-1933
    (新人文主义主要代表) Literature and the American College文学与美国学院()要求恢复古典文学教学;The New Laokoon新拉奥孔;Rousseau and Romanticism卢梭与浪漫主义;Democracy and Leadership民主与领导;On being Creative论创造性   
    43、Villa Sibert Cather维拉·凯塞1873-1947 O,Pioneers啊,先驱们;My Antonia我的安东尼亚;The Professor’s House教授之家;Death Comes for the Archibishop大主教之死   
    44、Gertrude Stein格特鲁德·斯坦因1874-1946 The Autobiography of Alice B Toklas爱丽丝·托克拉斯的自传;Tender Button温柔的钮扣   
    45、Robert Frest罗伯特·弗罗斯特1874-1963 A Boy’s Wish少年心愿;North of Boston波士顿之北(Mending Wall修墙,After Apple-picking摘苹果之后);Mountain Interval山间(成熟阶段)(The Road Not taken没有选择的道路);
    West-running Brook西流的溪涧;A Further Range又一片牧场;A Witness Tree一株作证的树   
    46、Sherwood Anderson舍伍德·安德森1876-1941 Windy McPherson’s Son饶舌的麦克斐逊的儿子;Marching Men前进中的人们;Mid-American Chants美国中部之歌;Winesburg,Ohio/The Book of the Grotesque俄亥俄州的温斯堡/畸人志;Poor White穷苦的白人;Many Marriages多种婚姻;Dark Laughter阴沉的笑声
    The Triumph of the Egg and Other Stories鸡蛋的胜利和其他故事;Death in the Woods and Other Stories林中之死及其他故事;I Want to Know Why我想知道为什么   
    47、Carl Sandburg卡尔·桑德堡1878-1967 Always the Young Stranger永远是陌生的年轻人s;In Reckless Ecstasy肆无忌惮的狂热;The Prairie Years草原的年代一、二;The War Years战争的年代(林肯传记);The American Songbag美国歌袋;The People,Yes人民,好;Honey and Salt蜜与盐;Corn-huskers辗米机(Fog雾);Smoke and Steel烟与钢   
    48、Wallace Stevens华莱士·史蒂文斯1879-1955 Harmonium风琴;The Man With the Blue Guitar弹蓝吉他的人;Notes Toward a Supreme Fiction关于最高虚构的札记(Peter Quince at the Clavier彼得·昆斯弹风琴;Sunday Morning礼拜天早晨);The Auroras of Autumn秋天的晨曦;Collected Poems诗集   
    49、Henry Louis Mencken孟肯1880-1956 Bernard Shaw:His Plays肖伯纳的戏剧;The Philosophy of Nietzche尼采的哲学;The American Language美车语言;Happy Days幸福的日子(自传三部曲);Newspaper Days新闻记者的岁月;Heathe Days倡导异端邪说的年代   
    50、William Carlos Williams威廉·卡罗斯·威廉斯1883-1963 收入Des Imagistes意像派(意像派的第一部诗选)
    诗集:Sour Grapes;Spring and All春;The Desert Music;The Journey of Love爱的历程;Collected Poems;Complete Poems;Collected Later Poems;Pictures from Brueghel布留盖尔的肖像;Paterson佩特森(5卷长诗);Asphodal,That Green Flower常青花日光兰(长诗)
    名诗:Red Wheelbarrow红色手推车;The Widow’s Lament in Spring寡妇的春怨;The Dead Baby;The Sparrow ,to My Father麻雀—致父亲;Proletarian Portrait无产阶级画像(from An Early Martyr先驱);
    The Great American Novels伟大的美国小说;In the American Grain美国性格;Autobiography自传   
    51、Sinclair Lewis辛克莱·刘易斯1885-1951(美国第一个获诺贝尔奖) Dur Mr Wrenn我们的雷恩先生;The Job求职;The Main Street大先进;Babbitt巴比特;Arrowsmith艾罗史密斯;Elmer Gantry艾尔默·甘特里;Dodsworth多兹沃斯;It can’t Happen Here事情不会发生在这里;Kingsblood Royal王孙梦   
    52、Ezra Pound艾兹拉·庞德1885-1972 The Spirit of Romance罗曼司精神;The Anthology Des Imagistes意像派诗选;Cathay华夏(英译中国诗);Literary Essays文学论;Hugh Swlwyn Mauberley;A Few Don’ts by Imagiste意像派戒条;Personage面具;Polite Essays文雅集;The Cantos of Ezra Pound庞德诗章(109首及8首未完成稿)   
    53、Hilda Doolittle希尔达·杜丽特尔1886-1961 Sea Garden海的花园;Collected Poems(Dread山精;Pear Tree;Orchard);The Walls Do Not Fall墙没在倒塌(战争诗三部曲);Tribute to the Angels天使颂;The Flowering of the Rod柳条葳蕤;Tribute to Freud献给弗洛伊德;Hellen in Egypt海伦在伦敦(抒情长诗)   
    54、Thomas Stearns Eliot托马斯·艾略特1888-1965 Prufrock and Other Observations普罗夫洛克(荒原意识);The Waste Land荒原(The Burial of the Dead死者的葬礼;A Game of Chess弈棋;The Fire Sermon火诫;Death by Water水边之死;What the Thunder Said雷电之言);
    名诗:Ash Wednesday圣灰星期三;Four Quarters四个四重奏
    诗剧:Murder in the Cathedral大教堂谋杀案;Family Reunion大团圆;Cocktail Party鸡尾酒会   
    55、Eugene Oneil尤金·奥尼尔1888-1953 独幕剧:Bound East to Cardiff东航卡迪夫;The Long Voyage Home归途迢迢;The Moon of the Carribbeans加勒比人之月
    多幕剧:Beyond the Horizon天边外(其成名作);Anna Christie安娜·克里斯蒂;The Emperor Jones琼斯皇;The Hairy Ape毛猿;All the God’s Children Got Wings上帝的儿女都有翅膀The Great God Brown大神布朗;The Strange Interlude奇异的插曲;Mourning Becomes Electr素娥怨/悲悼a;The Iceman Cometh送冰的人来了;The Long Days Journey Into Night进入黑夜的漫长旅程/日长路远夜常深沉   
    56、Katherine Anne Porter凯瑟琳·安·波特1890-1980 Flowering Judas开花的紫荆花(Maria Conception;The Jitting of Granny Weatherall);Pale Horse,Pale Rider;Leaning Tower and Other Stories------TheCollected Stories of K A Porter
    Ship of Fools愚人船(唯一的一部长篇小说);The Never Ending Wrong千古奇冤(回忆录)   
    57、Archibald Mac Leish阿基博尔德·麦克利什1892-1982 Towers of Ivory象牙塔;The Happy Marriage幸福的婚姻;Streets in the Moon月色中的街;New Found Land新发现的大陆;Conquistador新西班牙的征服者;Poems1912-1952
    广播剧:The Fall of the City城市的陷落;Airraid空袭   
    58、Michael Gold迈克尔·戈尔德1894-1967 120 Million一亿二千万;Change The World改变世界;The Hollow Man空心人;Jews Without Money没在钱的犹太人(自传体小说)
    戏剧:Hoboken Blues;Fiesta节日;Battle Hymn歌;Prletarian Literature in the United States美国无产阶级文学选集(与人合编)   
    59、E Cumings肯明斯1894-1962 Tulips anddd Chimneys郁金香与烟囱;The Enormous Room大房间;XLI   Poems诗41首;Viva万岁;No,  Thanks不,谢谢;Collected Poems诗集;Eimi爱米(访苏游记)   
    60、Edmund Wilson埃德蒙·威尔逊1895-1972 Travel in  Two Democracies在两个民主国家里旅行;To the Finland Station到芬兰站去;A Piece of My Mind:Reflection at Sixty心里话:行年六十的沉思;Axel’s Castle阿克塞尔的城堡(象征主义批判的圭阜);The Ttriple Thinkers三重思想家;The Wound and The Bow创伤与箭;The Shores of Light光明之岸;The Fruits of the MLA现代语言协会的成果   
    61、John Dos Passos帕索斯1896-1970 The Three Soldiers;Manhattan Transfer;U.S.A(The Forty-second Parallel;1919;The Big Money);District of Columbia哥伦比亚大区(The Adventures of a Young Man一个年轻人的冒险;Number One第一号;The Grand Design伟大的计划);Orient Express东方特别快车(游记)   
    62、F Scott Fitzgerald弗朗西斯·菲茨杰拉德1896-1940(迷惘的一代) The Side of Paradise人间天堂;The Beautiful and the Damned美丽的和倒霉;The Great Gatsby了不起的盖茨比;Tender in the Night夜色温柔;The Last Tycoon最后的巨头
    短篇小说:Flappers and Philosophers姑娘们和哲学家们;Tales of the Jazz爵士时代的故事;Taps at Reveille早晨的起床号→The Ice Palace冰宫;May Days五一节;The Diamond as Big as the Ritz像里茨饭店那样大的钻石;Winter Dreams冬天的梦;The Rich Boy富家子弟;Babylon Revisted重访巴比伦敦             The Crack-up崩溃(自传体文集)   
    63、William Faulkner威廉·福克纳1897-1962 The Marble Faun云石林神(诗集);Soldiers’ Pay兵饷(小说)
    短篇小说:Dry September干燥的九月;The Sound and the Fury愤怒与喧嚣;As I lay dying当我垂死的时候;Light in August八月之光;Absalom,Absolam押沙龙,押沙龙(家世小说)   
    64、Malcolm Cowley马尔科姆·考利1898- 译作:法国安德烈·纪德Andre Gide的Imaginary Interview虚构的会议
    诗集:Blue Juniata;The Dry Season;The Exile’s Return流亡者的回归(研究“迷惘的一代”的专著);A Second Flowering第二次繁荣(The Other War另一种战争)   
    65、Ernest Hemingway欧内斯特·海明威1899-1961(“迷惘的一代”的代表人物) In Our Time在我们的年代里;The Torrents of Spring春潮;The Sun Also Rises太阳照样升起;Farewell to Arms永别了,武器;For Whom the Bell Tolls丧钟为谁而鸣
    短篇小说:Men Without Women没有女人的男人;The Winners Take Notheing胜者无所获;The Fifth Column and First Forty-nine Stories第五纵队与首次发表的四十九个短篇
    政论:To Have and Have Not贫与富    回忆录:A Moveable Feast到处逍遥   
    66、Hart Crane哈特·克兰1899-1932 My Grandfather’s Love Letters祖父的情书;Praise for an Urn瓮颂;For the Marriage of Faustus and Hellen为浮士德和海伦的婚姻而作;Voyage航海;The Bridge桥(长诗);White Buildings白色的楼房(首部诗集)   
    67、Thomas Wolfe托马斯·沃尔夫1900-1938 Look Homeward,Angel天使,望乡→(续)Of Time and the River时间与河流;The Web and the Rock蛛网与岩石;You Can’t Go Home Again有家归不得;The Hills Beyond远山(未完成)
    短篇小说:From Death to Morning从死亡到早晨   
    68、James Langston Hughes詹姆斯·兰斯顿·休斯1902-1969 Mulatto混血儿(剧本);The Weary Blues疲倦的歌声;Dear Lovely Death亲爱的死神;Shakespear in Harlem哈莱姆的莎士比亚;I Wonder as I Wander我漂泊我思考;The Best of Simple辛普尔精选   
    69、John Steinbeck约翰·斯坦贝克1902-1966 Cup of Gold金杯;Tortilla Flat煎饼房;In Dubious Battle胜负未定;Of Mice and Men鼠和人;The Grapes of Wrath愤怒的葡萄;The Moon is Down月亮下去了;Cannery Row罐头厂街;The Pearl珍珠
    短篇小说:The Red Pony小红马(The Gift,The Great Mountains大山;The Promise许诺,The Leader of the People人们的领袖)   
    70、Nathanael West韦斯特1903-1940 The Dream Life of Balso Snell巴尔索·斯纳尔的梦幻生涯;The Day of Locust蝗灾之日;Miss Lonelyhearts寂寞小说   
    71、James Farrel 法雷尔1904-1979 Studs Lonigan斯塔兹·朗尼根(Young Lonigan少年朗尼根;The Young Manhood of Studs Lonigan朗尼根的青年时代,Judgement Day末日窝审判);Danny O’Neil丹尼·奥尼尔(五部曲);Bernard Carr伯纳德·卡尔(三部曲)
    短篇小说:Calico Shoes花布鞋;Guillotine Party行刑队
    文艺评论:A Note on Literary Criticism文艺评论札记;Literature and Morality文学与道德   
    72、Lillian Hellman丽莲·海尔曼1905-1983 The Children’s Hour孩子们的时光;The Little Foxes小狐狸;Watch on the Rhine守望莱茵河;The Searching Wind彻骨的风;The Autumn Garden秋园 ;Tos in the Attic阁楼里的玩具;The Days to Come未来的日子;Another Part of the Forest森林的另一处
    回忆录:An Unfinished Wonman一个事业尚未终了的女人;Pentimento旧画新貌;Scoundrel Time邪恶的时代   
    73、Clifford Odets克利福德·奥德茨1906-1963 Waiting for Lefty等待老左/勒夫特;Awake and Sing!醒来歌唱;Till the Day I Die直到我死的那天;Paradise Lost失乐园;Golden Boy金孩子;Clash by Night夜间冲突;The Big Knife大刀;The Country Girl乡村姑娘;The Flowering Peach开花的桃树   
    74、Richard Wright理查德·赖特1908-1960 Uncle Tom’s Children汤姆叔叔的孩子们;Native Son土生子;Black Boy;黑孩子The Outsiders局外人;The Long Dream漫长的梦;Eight Men八人行   
    75、Eudora Welty尤多拉·韦尔蒂1906- 短篇小说:Death of a Travelling,Salesman巡回推销员之死;A Curtain of Green and Other Stories绿窗帘和其他;The Wide Net and Other Stories大网和其他故事;The Golden Apples金苹果;The Bridge of Innifallen英尼斯法伦的新娘
    长篇小说:The Robber Bridgeroom强盗新朗;Detta Wedding德尔塔的婚姻;The Ponder Heart庞德的心;The Losing Battles失败的战斗;The Optismist’s Daughter乐观者的女儿   
    76、Valdimir Nabokov弗·纳博科夫1899-1977 Lolita洛莉塔;Pale Fire微暗的火;The Admiralty Sprie海军部大厦塔尖   
    77、Anais Nin安娜伊思·宁1903-1977 The Novel of Future未来的小说;Heida海达;House of Incest乱伦之家;Collages拼贴   
    78、Issac Bashevis Singer艾萨克·辛格1904-1991 Gimpel the Fool傻瓜吉姆佩尔;The Family Moskat莫斯卡特家族;Satan in Goray撒旦在戈雷;The Magician of Lublin卢布林的魔术师;The Slave奴隶;The Manor庄园;The Estate产业;Enenemies,A Love Story仇敌们,一个爱情故事;Shosha舒莎
    短篇小说:The Spinoza of Market Street市场街的斯宾诺莎;A Friend of Kafka卡夫卡的朋友
    名篇:Neighbours邻居   
    79、Robert Penn Warren罗伯特·沃伦1905-1989 Night Rider夜间骑士;At Heaven’s Gate在天堂门口;All King’s Men国王的全部人马;World Enough and Time足够的世界和时间;The Cave洞穴;Band of Angels天使的队伍;A Place to Come to归宿
    诗集:Thirtysix Poems;Selected Poems1923-1943;Brother to Dragons;Promised:Poems1954-1956;You,Emperors and Others;Selected Poems New and Old 1923-1966;Elven Poems on the Same Themet;Incarnation Poem1966-1968显灵:1966-1968诗选;Now and Then:Poems 1976-1978此时与彼时1976-1978诗选
    剧作:Proud Flesh骄傲的血肉之躯;Modern Rhetoric当代修辞学;Birth of Love爱之诞生(选自与Cleanth Brooks合编的  Understanding Poetry/Understanding Fiction)
    逃亡者集团The Fugitive的宣言书I’ll Take My Stand我表明我的立场   
    80、Tennessee William田纳西·威廉斯1911-1983 American Blues美国的布鲁斯;Battle of Angels天使的战斗;The Glass Menagerie玻璃动物园;The Streetcar Named Desire欲望号街车;Cat on a Hot Tin Roof热铁皮屋顶上的猫;The Night of The Iguana鬣蜥之夜;Summer and Smoke夏与烟;The Rose Tattoo玫瑰纹;Sweet Bird of Yout可爱的青春鸟   
    81、John Cheever约翰·契弗1912-1982 短篇小说:The Expelled开除
    短篇小说集:The Way Some People Live一些人的生活方式;The Enormous Radio and Other Stories巨型收音机和其他;The Housebreaker of Shaddy Hill and Other Stories绿茵山窃贼和其他;Some People,Places and Things That Will Not Appear in My Next Novel一些不会在我下一部小说中出现的人物、地点、事件;The Brigadier and the Golf Widow陆军准将和高尔夫迷寡妇;The World of Apples苹果世界→The Stories of John Cheever契弗短篇小说选
    长篇小说:The Wapshot Chronicle/Scandal瓦普肖特纪事/丑闻;Bullet Park布利特公园;Falconer鹰猎者   
    82、Irwin Shaw欧文·肖1913-1984 Bury the Dead埋葬死者;Sailor off the Bremen不来梅港外的水手
    长篇小说:The Young Lions幼狮;The Troubled Air混浊的空气;Lucy Crown露茜·克朗;Two Weeks in Another Town; Voices of a Summer Day夏日的喁喁声;Rich Man,Poor Man;Evening in Byzantium;Nightwork认夜工;Beggarman,Thief;Bread upon the Waters   
    83、Ralph Ellison拉尔夫·埃利林1914- 长篇小说:Invisible Man看不见的人
    散文集:Shadow and Act影子与行动;Going to the Territory步入文学界   
    84、Bernard Malamud伯纳德·马拉默德1914-1986 长篇小说:The Natural天生运动员;The Assistant伙计;The Fixer装配工;A New Life新生活;God’s Grace上帝的恩赐        短篇小说:The Magic Barrel魔桶   
    85、Landall Jarrel兰达尔·贾维尔1914-1965 诗集:Blood for a Stranger献给一个陌生人的血;Little Friend ,Little Friend小朋友,小朋友;Losses损失;Seven-league Crutches七里格长的拐杖;The Lost World失去的世界
    小说:Pictures of an Institution学院小景;The Woman at the Washington Zoo华盛顿动物园的女人
    评论:Poetry and the Age诗歌与时代;The Death of the Ball Turret Gunner旋转炮塔炮手之死   
    86、John Berryman约翰·贝里曼1914-1972 诗:Homage to Mrs Bradstreet献给布拉兹特里夫人;The Dream Songs梦之歌;Poems1942;The Dispossessed被剥夺者(The Ball Poem小球诗);77 Dream Songs;Berryman’s Sonnets;Short Poems;His Toy;His Dream;His Rest;Love and Fame;Delusion,etc错觉及其他
    小说:Recovery复原       传记:Stephen Crane斯蒂芬·克莱恩   
    87、Saul Bellow索尔·贝娄1915- 长篇小说:Dangling Man晃来晃去/挂起来的人;The Victim受害者;The Adventure of Augie March奥基·马奇历险记;Henderson the Rain King雨王汉德逊;Herzog赫索格;Mr Summlar’s Planet塞姆勒先生的行星;Humboldt’s Gift洪堡的礼物
    中篇小说:Seize the Day且乐今朝   
    88、Arthur Miller阿瑟·米勒1915- Situation Normal情况正常;The Man Who Had All the Luck吉星高照的人;All My Sons都是我的儿子;The Death of a Salesman推销员;The Crucible严峻的考验/萨姆勒的女巫;A View from the Bridge桥头眺望;A Memory of Two Mondays两个星期一的回忆;After the Fall堕落之后;Incident at Vichy维希事件 ;The Price代价;The Creation of the World and Other Business创世及其他;The Archbishop’s Ceiling大主教的天花板;The American Clock美国时钟   
    89、Robert Lowell罗伯特·洛厄尔1917-1977 诗:Lord Weary’s Castle威尔利老爷的城堡;Life Studies人生探索
    名篇:For Sale;Walking in the Blue;For the Union Dead献给联邦死难士→自白诗运动   
    90、J D Salinger杰罗姆·大卫·塞林格1919- 短篇小说:The Young Folks年轻人     短篇小说集:Nine Stories故事九篇
    中篇小说:Franny弗兰尼;Zooey卓埃;Raise High the Roof Beam,Carpenters木匠们,把屋梁升高;Seymour:An Introduction西摩其人
    长篇小说:The Cather in the Rye麦田守望者   
    91、Betty Frieden贝蒂·弗里丹1921- The Feminine Mystique女性的奥秘;It Changed My Life它改变了我的生活;The Second Stage第二阶段(How to get the Women’s Movement Moving Again)   
    92、Alex Haley亚历克斯·哈利1921-1992 The Autobiography of Malcolm X马尔科姆·艾克斯自传
    Roots根;Hanning汉宁镇(自传体小说)   
    93、Jack Kerouac杰克·凯鲁亚克1922-1966(“垮掉的一代”奠基者) The Town and the City镇和城;On the Road在路上;The Subterraneans地下居民;The Dharma Bums达摩的流浪者;Visions of Cody科迪的梦想;Doctor Sax萨克斯医生;Maggie Cassidy麦琪·卡西迪;Mexico City Blues墨西哥城的布鲁斯;Lonesome Traveller孤独的旅行者;Desolation Angels凄凉天使;Satori in Paris巴黎参禅记;Vanity of Duluoz杜卢奥斯的偏见   
    94、Kurt Vonnegut库特·冯尼格特 长篇小说:Player Piano自动钢琴;The Sirens of Titan泰坦族的海妖;Cat’s Craddle猫的摇篮;Slaughterhouse Five第五号屠场;Mother Night黑夜母亲;God Bless You,Mr Rosewater上帝保佑你,罗斯瓦特先生;Breakfast of Champions顶呱呱的早餐;Slapstick,or Lonesome No More滑稽剧,又名不再孤独;Jailbird囚犯;Deadeye Dick神枪手迪克
    短篇小说集:Welcome to the Monkey House欢迎到猴房来(Report on the Barnhouse Effect关于巴恩豪斯效应的报告)   
    95、Norman Mailer诺曼·米勒1923-   (垮掉的一代;文学恐怖主义者/亡命之徒) 裸者与死者;Barbary Shore巴巴里海滨;The Deer Park廘苑;An American Dream一场美国梦;The White Negro白色黑人;Advertisement for Myself为自己做广告;Why Are We in Vietnam?我们为什么要去越南;The Executioner’s Song刽子手之歌;The Armies of the Night夜色幕下的大军(History as a Novel/The Novel as History)—非虚构小说;New Journalism新新闻报道   
    96、James Dichey詹姆斯·迪基1923- 诗集:Into the Stone钻入石头;Drowning With Others跟别人一起淹死(The Lifeguard救生员);Helmets头盔;Buckdancer’s Choice班克舞者的选择;Poems1957-1967;The Iodiac黄道
    长诗:Deliverance解脱
    诗论集:The Suspect in Poetry诗歌中的嫌疑犯;Babel to Byzatium从巴别尔到拜占庭   
    97、Joseph Heller约瑟夫·海勒1923- 长篇小说:Catch-22第二十二条军规;Something Happened出了毛病;As Good as Gold像高尔德一样好               剧本:We Bombed in New Haven我们轰炸纽黑文;Catch-22;Clevinger’s Trial克莱文杰受审(据Catch-22第八章)   
    98、James Baldwin詹姆斯·鲍德温1924-1987 散文集:Note of  a Native Son土生子的笔记;Nobody Knows My Name;Fire Next Time下一次烈火;No Name in the Street他的名字被遗忘;The Devil Finds Work魔鬼找到工作
    小说:Go Tell it on the Mountain向苍天呼吁;Giovanni’s Room乔万尼的房间;Another Country另一个国度;Tell Me How Long the Train’s Been Gone告诉我火车已开多久;If Beale Street Could Talk假如比尔能说话;Just Above My Head就在我头上
    短篇小说集:Going to Meet the Man去见这个人
    剧本:The Amen Corner阿门角;Blues for Mister Charley为查理先生唱布鲁斯/黑人怨;One Day When I was Lost有一天当我迷失的时候/迷路前后   
    100、Flannery O’Connor弗兰纳里·奥康纳1925-1964 长篇小说:Wise Blood慧血;The Violent Bear It Away它为强暴者所夺走
    短篇小说集:A Good Man Is Hard to Find好人难寻;Everything That Rises Must Converg上升的一切必然汇合e
    名文:Good Country People善良的乡下人;The Lame Shall Enter First跛腿者先进去;Greenleaf格林利夫;Revelation;Parker’s Back派克的背   
    101、William Styron威廉·斯泰伦1925- Lie Down in Darkness躺在黑暗中;The Long March长途行军;Set This House on Fire放火烧屋;The Confessions of Nat Turner纳特·特纳的自白;Sophie’s Choice索菲的选择   
    102、Allen Ginsburg艾伦·金斯堡1926- 诗集:Howl and Other Poems嚎叫及其他(America)(The Beat Generation垮掉的一代的宣言书和代表作);Kaddish and Other Poems卡第绪及其他;Plannet News行星消息;The Fall of America美国的衰弱   
    103、James Wright詹姆斯·赖特1927-1980 诗集:The Green Wall绿墙;Saint Judas圣徒犹大;The Tail and Eyes of a Lion狮子的尾巴和眼睛;The Branch Will Not Break树枝不会断;Shall We Gather at the River我们在河边聚会;Collected Poems;Two Citizens两位公民;Moments of the Italian Summer意大利之夏;To a Blossoming Pear Tree致盛开鲜花的梨树;This Journey;A Blessing祝福   
    104、Edward Albee爱德华·阿尔比1928- The Zoo Story动物园的故事;The Death of Bessie Smith贝西·史密斯之死;The Sandbox沙箱;The American Dream美国梦;Who’s Afraid of Virginia Woolf?谁害怕弗吉尼亚·伍尔夫;Tiny Alice小爱丽丝;A Delicate Balance脆弱的羊群;Seascape海景;The Lady from Dubuque来自杜布克的女人;The Man With Three Arms在臂人   
    105、Martin Luther King Jr马丁·路德·金1929-1968 I Have a Dream;Stride Toward Freedom迈向自由;Strength to Love爱的力量;Why We Can’t Wait?;Where Do We Go from Here,Chaos or Community?今后我们何去何从,纷争还是团结?   
    106、Gary Snyder加里·斯奈德1930-   (ecology poet) Riprap大卵石(Piute Creek皮尤特河);Myths & Texts神话与现实;The Back Country偏僻的山村;Regarding Wave观浪(Meeting the Mountain进山);Turtle Island龟岛;Left Out in the Rain:New Poems 1974-1985留在雨中:1974-1985新诗集
    文集:Six Sections from Mountains and Rivers Without End Plus One山水穷尽六章外一章;The Real Work:Interviews and Talks脚踏实地工作:访问记与演讲稿   
    107、John Barth约翰·巴思1930- 长篇小说:The Floating Opera漂浮的歌剧;The End of the Road穷途末路;The Sot-weed Factor烟草代理商;Letters书信集;Giles Goat-boy山羊孩子贾尔斯;Lost in the Funhouse迷失在开心馆里(Title题目);Chimera客迈拉; Sabbatical学院的轮休假;The Friday Book:Essays and Other Nonfictions星期五的书:论文及其他非小说   
    108、Tony Morrison托尼·莫里森1931- The Bluest Eye最蓝的眼睛;Sula苏拉;Song of Solomon所罗门之歌;Tar Baby柏油娃娃;Beloved;Jazz爵士乐   
    109、John Updike厄普代克1932- 长篇小说:The Poorhouse Fair养老院义卖会;Rabbit, Run兔子,跑吧;Rabbit Relax兔子回家;Rabbit Is Rich兔字发财;Centaur马人;Of the Farm农场;Couples夫妇;The Witches of Eastwick伊斯特威克的巫婆们;Tust Me信赖我
    短篇小说集:Pigeon Feather and Other Stories鸽羽及其他故事;The Music School 音乐学校;Problems and Other Stories问题及其他故事
    评论集:Hugging the Shore:Essays and Criticism拥抱海洋:论文与批评
    诗集:Midpoint and Other Poems中点及其他诗篇
    小说:V;The Crying of Lot 49   49号遗物的拍卖;Gravity’s Rainbow万有引力之虹   
    110、Joyce Carol Oates 乔伊斯·卡洛尔·欧茨1938- A Garden of Earthly Delights人间乐园;Expensive People奢侈的人们;Them;The Assassins刺客;Childwold查尔德伍德;Son of the Morning黎明之子;Unholy Loves不神圣的爱情;Bellefleur贝尔弗勒;Angel of Light光明天使;A Bloodsmoor Romance布勒兹摩传奇
    短篇小说集:By the North Gate北门边;Upon the Swearing Flood洪水浪潮;The Wheel of Love爱之轮;Marriage and Infidelities婚姻与婚外恋
    诗集:Anonymous Sins无名的罪孽;Love and Its Derangement爱与爱的错乱;Dreaming America梦想的美国
    剧本:The Sweet Enemy甜蜜的敌人;Sunday Dinner星期天会餐;Ontological Proof of My Existence我存在的本体论证明;Miracle Play奇迹剧
    论文集:The Edge of Impossibility:Tragic Forms in Literature不可能的边缘:文学的悲剧形式;New Heaven,New Earth:Visionary Experience in Literature新天堂,新人间:文学中的幻想经验   
    111、Sam Shepard萨姆·谢泼德1943-   剧本:Cowboys牛仔;The Rock Garden岩石花园;Cowboys #2牛仔第二号;Chicago芝加哥;Operation Sidewinder响尾蛇行动;Meloddrama情节剧   
    112、Sylvia Plath西尔维亚·普拉斯1932-1963(confessional school自白派) 诗集:The Colossus巨人集;Ariel阿里尔集(Daddy;Lady Lazarus拉扎勒斯夫人);The Uncollected Poems杂诗集;Crossing the Water涉水;Winter Trees
    小说:The Bell Jar钟形玻璃罩(自传体小说)
    名诗:Death & Co死亡公司   
    113、Philip Roth菲力普·罗斯1933- 短篇小说集:Goodbey,Columbus再见,哥伦布
    Letting Go放手;When She Was Good当她是好女人的时候;Portnoy’s Complaint波特诺伊的怨诉The Breast乳房;The Professor of Desire欲望教授;Our Gang我们这一帮;The Great American Novel伟大的美国小说;My Life as a Man我作为男人的一生;The Ghost Writer代人捉刀的作家;Zukerman Unbound解放了的朱克曼
    评论集:Reading Myself and Others评论自我与他人   
    114、Le Roi Jones勒罗依·琼斯1934- 诗集:The Dead Lecturer已故的讲师;Black Magic黑色魔术(Incident事件)
    剧本:Dutchman;The Slave;The Motion of History历史的运动   
    115、Marrie Winn玛丽·温1936- The Fireside Book of Children’s Songs炉边儿歌集;The Paygroup Book儿童游戏大全The Fisherman Who Needed a Knife;The Thief Cather;The Baby Reader幼儿读物;The Plug-in Drug插入电源的毒品;Children Without Children没有童年的儿童   
    116、Thomas Pynchon托马斯·品钦1937-  (后现代主义) Geography of a Horse Dreamer马塞梦测者的地理;Angel City天使城;The Tooth of Crime罪恶的牙齿;Family家庭 (Curse of the Starving Class饥饿阶级的诅咒;Buried Child被埋葬的孩子;True West真正的西部);Fool for Love情痴;A Lie of the Mind心灵的谎言;Paris/Texas德州的巴黎   
    117、Alice Walker沃克1944- 长篇小说:TheThird Life of Grange Copeland格兰治科普兰的第三次生活;Meridian梅丽迪安;The Color Purple紫色      名文:The Civil Rights Movement:What Good Was It?
    短篇小说集:In Love and Trouble相爱与苦恼;You Can’t Keep a Good Woman Down好女人永不屈服        散文集:In Search of Our Mothers’ Gardens
    美国文学   
    1、Benjamin Franklin本杰明·富兰克林1706-1790 A Modest Inquiry into the Nature and Necessity of a Paper Money;Poor Richard’s Almanack穷查理历书;The Way to Wealth致富之道;The Autobiography自传   
    2、Thomas Paine托马斯·潘恩1737-1809 The Case of the Officers of Excise税务员问题;Common Sense常识;American Crisis美国危机;Rights of Man人的权利:Downfall of Despotism专制体制的崩溃;The Age of Reason理性时代   
    3、Philip Freneau菲利普·弗伦诺1752-1832 The Rising Glory of America蒸蒸日上的美洲;The British Prison Ship英国囚船;To the Memory of the Brave Americans纪念美国勇士-----同类诗中最佳;The Wild Honeysuckle野生的金银花;The Indian Burying Ground印第安人殡葬地   
    4、Washington Irving华盛顿·欧文1783-1859 A History of New York纽约的历史-----美国人写的第一部诙谐文学杰作;The Sketch Book见闻札记The Legend of Sleepy Hollow睡谷的传说-----使之成为美国第一个获得国际声誉的作家;Bracebridge Hall布雷斯布里奇田庄;Talks of Travellers旅客谈;The Alhambra阿尔罕伯拉   
    5、James Fenimore Cooper詹姆斯·费尼莫尔·库珀1789-1851 The Spy间谍;The Pilot领航者;The Littlepage Manuscrīpts利特佩奇的手稿;Leatherstocking Tales皮裹腿故事集:The Pioneer拓荒者;The Last of Mohicans最后的莫希干人;The Prairie大草原;The Pathfinder探路者;The Deerslayer杀鹿者   
    6、William Cullen Bryant威廉·柯伦·布莱恩特1794-1878 The Poems1821/1932诗选:To a Waterfowl致水鸟-----英语中最完美的短诗;Thanatopsis死亡随想---受墓园派影响; The Whitefooted Deer白蹄鹿;A Forest Hymn森林赋;The Flood of Years似水流年   
    7、Edgar Allan Poe埃德加·爱伦·坡1809-1849(以诗为诗;永为世人共赏的伟大抒情诗人-----叶芝) Tales of the Grotesque and Arabesque怪诞奇异故事集;Tales故事集;The Fall of the House of Usher厄舍古屋的倒塌;Ligeia莱琪儿;Annabel Lee安娜贝尔·李-----歌特风格;首开近代侦探小说先河,又是法国象征主义运动的源头
    Tamerlane and Other Poems帖木儿和其他诗;Al Araaf,Tamerlane and Minor Poems艾尔·阿拉夫,帖木儿和其他诗;The Raven and Other Poems乌鸦及其他诗:The Raven乌鸦;The City in the Sea海城;Israfel 伊斯拉菲尔;To Hellen致海伦   
    8、Ralf Waldo Emerson拉尔夫·沃尔多·爱默生1803-1882 Essays散文集:Nature论自然-----新英格兰超验主义者的宣言书;The American Scholar论美国学者;Divinity;The Oversoul论超灵;Self-reliance论自立;The Transcendentalist超验主义者;Representative Men代表人物;English Traits英国人的特征;School Address神学院演说
    Concord Hymn康考德颂;The Rhodo杜鹃花;The Humble Bee野蜂;Days日子-首开自由诗之先河   
    9.Nathaniel Hawthorne纳撒尼尔·霍桑1804-1864
     Twice-told Tales尽人皆知的故事;Mosses from an Old Manse古屋青苔:Young Goodman Brown年轻的古德曼·布朗;The Scarlet Letter红字;The House of the Seven Gables有七个尖角阁的房子--------心理若们罗曼史;The Blithedale Romance福谷传奇;The Marble Faun玉石雕像   
    10、Henry David Threau亨利·大卫·梭罗1817-1862 Wadden,or Life in the Woods华腾湖或林中生活;Resistance to Civil Government/Civil Disobedience抵制公民政府;A Week on the Concord and Merrimack Rivers    
    11、Walt Whitman沃尔特·惠特曼1819-1892 Leaves of Grass草叶集:Song of the Broad-Axe阔斧之歌;I hear America Singing我听见美洲在歌唱;When Lilacs Lost in the Dooryard Bloom’d小院丁香花开时;Democratic Vistas民主的前景;The Tramp and Strike Question流浪汉和罢工问题;Song of Myself自我之歌   
    12、Herman Melville赫尔曼·梅尔维尔1819-1891 Moby Dick/The White Whale莫比·迪克/白鲸;Typee泰比;Omoo奥穆;Mardi玛地;Redburn雷得本;White Jacket白外衣;Pierre皮尔埃;Piazza广场故事;Billy Budd比利·巴德   
    13、Henry Wadsworth Longfellow亨利·沃兹沃思·朗费罗1807-1882 The Song of Hiawatha海华沙之歌----美国人写的第一部印第安人史诗;Voices of the Night夜吟;Ballads and Other Poens民谣及其他诗;Belfry of Bruges and Other Poems布鲁茨的钟楼及其他诗;Tales of a Wayside Inn路边客栈的故事---诗集:An April Day四月的一天/A Psalm of Life人生礼物/Paul Revere’s Ride保罗·里维尔的夜奔;Evangeline伊凡吉琳;The Courtship of Miles Standish迈尔斯·斯坦迪什的求婚----叙事长诗;Poems on Slavery奴役篇---反蓄奴组诗   
    14、John Greenleaf Whittier约翰·格林里夫·惠蒂埃1807-1892 Poems Written During the Progress of the Abolition Question废奴问题;Voice of Freedom自由之声;In War Time and Other Poems内战时期所作;Snow-Bound大雪封门;The Tent on the Beach and Other Poems海滩的帐篷
    Ichabod艾卡博德;A Winter Idyl冬日田园诗   
    15、Harriet Beecher Stowe哈丽特·比彻·斯托1811-1896 Uncle Tom’s Cabin汤姆叔叔的小屋;A Tale of the Great Dismal Swamp德雷德阴暗大沼地的故事片;The Minister’s Wooing牧师的求婚;The Pearl of Orr’s Island奥尔岛的珍珠;Oldtown Folks老城的人们   
    16、Frederick Douglass弗莱德里克·道格拉斯1817-1895 Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass an American Slave弗莱德里克·道格拉斯,一个美国黑人的自述/My Bondage and My Freedom我的枷锁与我的自由/The life and Time of Frederick Douglass弗莱德里克·道格拉斯的生平与时代   
    17、Emily Dickinson埃米莉·迪金森1830-1886 The Poems of Emily Dichenson埃米莉·迪金森诗集-----“Tell all the truth and tell it slant”迂回曲折的,玄学的   
    18、Mark Twain马克·吐温(Samuel Longhorne Clemens)---美国文学的一大里程碑 The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras County加拉维拉县有名的跳蛙;The Innocent’s Abroad傻瓜出国记;The Gilded Age镀金时代;The Adventures of Tom Sawyer汤姆·索耶历险记;The Prince and the Pauper王子与贫儿;The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn哈克贝利·费恩历险记;A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur’s Court亚瑟王宫中的美国佬;The Tragedy of Pudd’nhead Wilson傻瓜威尔逊;Personal Recollections of Joan of Arc冉·达克;The Man That Corrupted Hadleyburg败坏哈德莱堡的人
    How to Tell a Story怎样讲故事---对美国早期幽默文学的总结   
    19、Francis Bret Harte哈特1836-1902 The Luck of Roaring Camp咆哮营的幸运儿------乡土文学作家   
    20、William Dean Howells 威廉·狄恩·豪威尔斯1837-1920 The Rise of Silas Lapham赛拉斯·拉帕姆的发迹;A Modern Instance现代婚姻; A Hazard of Now Fortunes时来运转;A Traveller from Altruia从利他国来的旅客;Through the Eye of the Needle透过针眼----乌托邦小说;Criticism and Fiction;Novel-Writing and Novel-Reading小说创作与小说阅读   
    21、Henry Adams享利·亚当斯1838-1918 History of the United States During the Administration of Jefferson and Madison(历史著作);The Education of Henry Adams:An Autobiography享利·亚当斯的教育   
    22、William James威廉·詹姆斯1842-1910(首提“意识流”理论) Principles of Psychology心理学原理;The Will to Believe信仰的意志;Pragmatism:A New Name for Some Old Ways of Thinking实用主义:某些旧思想方法的新名称;The Meaning of Truth真理的意义   
    23、Henry James享利·詹姆斯1843-1916 小说:Daisy Miller苔瑟·米乐;The Portrait of a Lady贵妇人画像;The Bostonians波士顿人;The Real Thing and Other Tales真货色及其他故事;The Wings of the Dove鸽翼;The Ambassadors大使;The Golden Bowl金碗
    评论集:French Poets and Novelists法国诗人和小说家;Hawthorne霍桑;Partial Portraits不完全的画像;Notes and Reviews札记与评论;Art of Fiction and Other Essays小说艺术   
    24、Ambrose Bierce安布罗斯·毕尔斯1842-1914? 小品集:The Fiend’s Deligh魔鬼的乐趣;Nuggests and Dust Panned out in California在加利福尼亚淘出的金块和金粉;Cobwebs from an Empty Skull来自空脑壳的蜘蛛网
    短篇小说集:Tales of Soldiers and Civilians军民故事;In the Midst of Life在人生中间;Can Such Things Be?这种事情可能吗?The Devil’s Dictionary魔鬼词典(The Applicant申请者)   
    25、Edward Bellamy爱德华·贝拉米1850-1898 Looking Backward:2000-1887回顾:从2000看1887年;Equality平等;The Duke of  Sockbridge:A Romance of Shay’s Rebellion斯托克布里奇的公爵:雪司起义的故事;The Blindman’s World and Other Stories育人的世界及其他   
    26、Edwin Charles Markham马卡姆1852-1940 The Man With the Hoe荷锄人   
    27、Charles Waddell Chesnutt查尔斯·契斯纳特1858-1932 The Conjure Woman巫女;The Wife of His Youth and Other Stories of the Color Line他青年时代的妻子(The Sheriff’s Children警长的儿女)(the pioneer of the color line);The Marrow of Tradition一脉相承   
    28、Hamlin Garland汉姆林·加兰1860-1940 Crumbling Idol崩溃的偶像(真实主义veritism);Man Travelled Roads大路(The Return of a Private三等兵归来);Rose of Ducher’s Cooly荷兰人山谷中的露斯;A Son of the Middle Border中部边地农家子   
    29、O·Henry欧·享利(William Sidney Porter)1862-1910 The Man Higher Up黄雀在后;Sixes and Sevens七上八下   
    30、Edith Wharton伊迪斯·华顿1862-1937 The House of Mirth欢乐之家;Ethan Frome;Bunner Sister班纳姐妹;The Age of Innocent天真时代;The Customs of the Country乡村习俗;A Backward Glance回首往事   
    32、George Santayana桑塔亚那1863-1952 Scepticism and Animal Faith怀疑主义与动物性信仰;The Realms Being存在诸领域(本质/物质/真理/精神领域:4卷)(Relativity of Knowledge);Three Philosphical Poets三大哲学诗人;Poems(A Minuet:On Reaching the Age of Fifty小步舞曲:五十书怀);The Last Puritan最后的清教徒   
    33、William E·B Dubois威廉·艾伯·杜波依斯1868-1963 Souls of Black Folk黑人的灵魂(Of Booker T Washington and Others);The Suppression of the African Slave Trade into the USA制止非洲奴隶贸易进入美国;The Philadephia Negro;John Brown;The Black Flame黑色的火焰(三部曲)   
    34、Edgar Lee Masters埃德加·李·马斯特斯1868-1950 A Book of Verse诗集;Maximilian马克西米连(诗集);
    Spoon River Anthology斯普恩河诗集(Lucinda Matlock鲁欣达·马物罗克)   
    35、Edwin Arlington Robinson鲁宾逊1869-1935 Captain Craig克雷格上尉---诗体小说;The Town Down the River河上的城镇;The Man Against the Sky衬托着天空的人;Avon’s Harvest沃冯的收成;Collected Poems诗集   
    36、Frank Norris弗兰克·诺里斯1870-1902 Moran of the Lady Letty茱蒂夫人号上的莫兰(romantic);Mc-Teague麦克提格(naturalistic);The Epic of the Wheat(realistic)小麦诗史(The Octopus章鱼,The Pit小麦交易所);A Deal in Wheat and Other Stories of the Old and New West小麦交易所及其他新老西部故事   
    37、Stephen Crane斯蒂芬·克莱恩1871-1900 Magic:A Girl of the Streets街头女郎梅姬(美国文学史上首次站在同情立场上描写受辱妇女的悲惨命运);The Red Badge of Courage红色英勇勋章;The Open Boat小划子;The Bride Comes to Yellow Sky新娘来到黄天镇   
    38、Theodore Dreiser西奥多·德莱塞1871-1945 Sister Carrie嘉莉姐妹;Jennie Gerhardt珍妮姑娘;Trilogy of Desire欲望三部曲(Financer金融家,The Titan巨人,The Stoic);An American Tragedy美国的悲剧(被称为美国最伟大的小说);Nigger Jeff黑人杰弗   
    39、Paul Laurence Dumbar保尔·劳伦斯·邓巴1872-1906 We Wear the Mask我们带着面具
    他是美国第一个有成就的黑人诗人,被称为“黑种人的桂冠诗人”(Poet Laureate of the Negro Race)   
    40、Jack London杰克·伦敦1876-1916 The Son of the Wolf狼之子,The Call of the Wild野性的呼唤;The Sea-wolf海狼;White Fang白獠牙;The People of the Abyss深渊中的人们;The Iron Heel铁蹄;Marti Eden马丁·伊登;How I become a Socialist我怎样成为社会党人;The War of the Classes阶级之间的战争;What Life Means to Me生命对我意味着什么;Revolution革命;Love of Life热爱生命;The Mexican墨西哥人;Under the Deck Awings在甲板的天蓬下   
    41、Upton Sinclair厄普顿·辛克莱尔1878-1968 Spring and Harvest春天与收获;The Jungle屠场(揭发黑幕运动的代表作家);King Coal煤炭大王;Oil石油;Boston波士顿;Dragon’s Teeth龙齿   
    42、Irving Babbitt欧文·白壁德1865-1933
    (新人文主义主要代表) Literature and the American College文学与美国学院()要求恢复古典文学教学;The New Laokoon新拉奥孔;Rousseau and Romanticism卢梭与浪漫主义;Democracy and Leadership民主与领导;On being Creative论创造性   
    43、Villa Sibert Cather维拉·凯塞1873-1947 O,Pioneers啊,先驱们;My Antonia我的安东尼亚;The Professor’s House教授之家;Death Comes for the Archibishop大主教之死   
    44、Gertrude Stein格特鲁德·斯坦因1874-1946 The Autobiography of Alice B Toklas爱丽丝·托克拉斯的自传;Tender Button温柔的钮扣   
    45、Robert Frest罗伯特·弗罗斯特1874-1963 A Boy’s Wish少年心愿;North of Boston波士顿之北(Mending Wall修墙,After Apple-picking摘苹果之后);Mountain Interval山间(成熟阶段)(The Road Not taken没有选择的道路);
    West-running Brook西流的溪涧;A Further Range又一片牧场;A Witness Tree一株作证的树   
    46、Sherwood Anderson舍伍德·安德森1876-1941 Windy McPherson’s Son饶舌的麦克斐逊的儿子;Marching Men前进中的人们;Mid-American Chants美国中部之歌;Winesburg,Ohio/The Book of the Grotesque俄亥俄州的温斯堡/畸人志;Poor White穷苦的白人;Many Marriages多种婚姻;Dark Laughter阴沉的笑声
    The Triumph of the Egg and Other Stories鸡蛋的胜利和其他故事;Death in the Woods and Other Stories林中之死及其他故事;I Want to Know Why我想知道为什么   
    47、Carl Sandburg卡尔·桑德堡1878-1967 Always the Young Stranger永远是陌生的年轻人s;In Reckless Ecstasy肆无忌惮的狂热;The Prairie Years草原的年代一、二;The War Years战争的年代(林肯传记);The American Songbag美国歌袋;The People,Yes人民,好;Honey and Salt蜜与盐;Corn-huskers辗米机(Fog雾);Smoke and Steel烟与钢   
    48、Wallace Stevens华莱士·史蒂文斯1879-1955 Harmonium风琴;The Man With the Blue Guitar弹蓝吉他的人;Notes Toward a Supreme Fiction关于最高虚构的札记(Peter Quince at the Clavier彼得·昆斯弹风琴;Sunday Morning礼拜天早晨);The Auroras of Autumn秋天的晨曦;Collected Poems诗集   
    49、Henry Louis Mencken孟肯1880-1956 Bernard Shaw:His Plays肖伯纳的戏剧;The Philosophy of Nietzche尼采的哲学;The American Language美车语言;Happy Days幸福的日子(自传三部曲);Newspaper Days新闻记者的岁月;Heathe Days倡导异端邪说的年代   
    50、William Carlos Williams威廉·卡罗斯·威廉斯1883-1963 收入Des Imagistes意像派(意像派的第一部诗选)
    诗集:Sour Grapes;Spring and All春;The Desert Music;The Journey of Love爱的历程;Collected Poems;Complete Poems;Collected Later Poems;Pictures from Brueghel布留盖尔的肖像;Paterson佩特森(5卷长诗);Asphodal,That Green Flower常青花日光兰(长诗)
    名诗:Red Wheelbarrow红色手推车;The Widow’s Lament in Spring寡妇的春怨;The Dead Baby;The Sparrow ,to My Father麻雀—致父亲;Proletarian Portrait无产阶级画像(from An Early Martyr先驱);
    The Great American Novels伟大的美国小说;In the American Grain美国性格;Autobiography自传   
    51、Sinclair Lewis辛克莱·刘易斯1885-1951(美国第一个获诺贝尔奖) Dur Mr Wrenn我们的雷恩先生;The Job求职;The Main Street大先进;Babbitt巴比特;Arrowsmith艾罗史密斯;Elmer Gantry艾尔默·甘特里;Dodsworth多兹沃斯;It can’t Happen Here事情不会发生在这里;Kingsblood Royal王孙梦   
    52、Ezra Pound艾兹拉·庞德1885-1972 The Spirit of Romance罗曼司精神;The Anthology Des Imagistes意像派诗选;Cathay华夏(英译中国诗);Literary Essays文学论;Hugh Swlwyn Mauberley;A Few Don’ts by Imagiste意像派戒条;Personage面具;Polite Essays文雅集;The Cantos of Ezra Pound庞德诗章(109首及8首未完成稿)   
    53、Hilda Doolittle希尔达·杜丽特尔1886-1961 Sea Garden海的花园;Collected Poems(Dread山精;Pear Tree;Orchard);The Walls Do Not Fall墙没在倒塌(战争诗三部曲);Tribute to the Angels天使颂;The Flowering of the Rod柳条葳蕤;Tribute to Freud献给弗洛伊德;Hellen in Egypt海伦在伦敦(抒情长诗)   
    54、Thomas Stearns Eliot托马斯·艾略特1888-1965 Prufrock and Other Observations普罗夫洛克(荒原意识);The Waste Land荒原(The Burial of the Dead死者的葬礼;A Game of Chess弈棋;The Fire Sermon火诫;Death by Water水边之死;What the Thunder Said雷电之言);
    名诗:Ash Wednesday圣灰星期三;Four Quarters四个四重奏
    诗剧:Murder in the Cathedral大教堂谋杀案;Family Reunion大团圆;Cocktail Party鸡尾酒会   
    55、Eugene Oneil尤金·奥尼尔1888-1953 独幕剧:Bound East to Cardiff东航卡迪夫;The Long Voyage Home归途迢迢;The Moon of the Carribbeans加勒比人之月
    多幕剧:Beyond the Horizon天边外(其成名作);Anna Christie安娜·克里斯蒂;The Emperor Jones琼斯皇;The Hairy Ape毛猿;All the God’s Children Got Wings上帝的儿女都有翅膀The Great God Brown大神布朗;The Strange Interlude奇异的插曲;Mourning Becomes Electr素娥怨/悲悼a;The Iceman Cometh送冰的人来了;The Long Days Journey Into Night进入黑夜的漫长旅程/日长路远夜常深沉   
    56、Katherine Anne Porter凯瑟琳·安·波特1890-1980 Flowering Judas开花的紫荆花(Maria Conception;The Jitting of Granny Weatherall);Pale Horse,Pale Rider;Leaning Tower and Other Stories------TheCollected Stories of K A Porter
    Ship of Fools愚人船(唯一的一部长篇小说);The Never Ending Wrong千古奇冤(回忆录)   
    57、Archibald Mac Leish阿基博尔德·麦克利什1892-1982 Towers of Ivory象牙塔;The Happy Marriage幸福的婚姻;Streets in the Moon月色中的街;New Found Land新发现的大陆;Conquistador新西班牙的征服者;Poems1912-1952
    广播剧:The Fall of the City城市的陷落;Airraid空袭   
    58、Michael Gold迈克尔·戈尔德1894-1967 120 Million一亿二千万;Change The World改变世界;The Hollow Man空心人;Jews Without Money没在钱的犹太人(自传体小说)
    戏剧:Hoboken Blues;Fiesta节日;Battle Hymn歌;Prletarian Literature in the United States美国无产阶级文学选集(与人合编)   
    59、E Cumings肯明斯1894-1962 Tulips anddd Chimneys郁金香与烟囱;The Enormous Room大房间;XLI   Poems诗41首;Viva万岁;No,  Thanks不,谢谢;Collected Poems诗集;Eimi爱米(访苏游记)   
    60、Edmund Wilson埃德蒙·威尔逊1895-1972 Travel in  Two Democracies在两个民主国家里旅行;To the Finland Station到芬兰站去;A Piece of My Mind:Reflection at Sixty心里话:行年六十的沉思;Axel’s Castle阿克塞尔的城堡(象征主义批判的圭阜);The Ttriple Thinkers三重思想家;The Wound and The Bow创伤与箭;The Shores of Light光明之岸;The Fruits of the MLA现代语言协会的成果   
    61、John Dos Passos帕索斯1896-1970 The Three Soldiers;Manhattan Transfer;U.S.A(The Forty-second Parallel;1919;The Big Money);District of Columbia哥伦比亚大区(The Adventures of a Young Man一个年轻人的冒险;Number One第一号;The Grand Design伟大的计划);Orient Express东方特别快车(游记)   
    62、F Scott Fitzgerald弗朗西斯·菲茨杰拉德1896-1940(迷惘的一代) The Side of Paradise人间天堂;The Beautiful and the Damned美丽的和倒霉;The Great Gatsby了不起的盖茨比;Tender in the Night夜色温柔;The Last Tycoon最后的巨头
    短篇小说:Flappers and Philosophers姑娘们和哲学家们;Tales of the Jazz爵士时代的故事;Taps at Reveille早晨的起床号→The Ice Palace冰宫;May Days五一节;The Diamond as Big as the Ritz像里茨饭店那样大的钻石;Winter Dreams冬天的梦;The Rich Boy富家子弟;Babylon Revisted重访巴比伦敦             The Crack-up崩溃(自传体文集)   
    63、William Faulkner威廉·福克纳1897-1962 The Marble Faun云石林神(诗集);Soldiers’ Pay兵饷(小说)
    短篇小说:Dry September干燥的九月;The Sound and the Fury愤怒与喧嚣;As I lay dying当我垂死的时候;Light in August八月之光;Absalom,Absolam押沙龙,押沙龙(家世小说)   
    64、Malcolm Cowley马尔科姆·考利1898- 译作:法国安德烈·纪德Andre Gide的Imaginary Interview虚构的会议
    诗集:Blue Juniata;The Dry Season;The Exile’s Return流亡者的回归(研究“迷惘的一代”的专著);A Second Flowering第二次繁荣(The Other War另一种战争)   
    65、Ernest Hemingway欧内斯特·海明威1899-1961(“迷惘的一代”的代表人物) In Our Time在我们的年代里;The Torrents of Spring春潮;The Sun Also Rises太阳照样升起;Farewell to Arms永别了,武器;For Whom the Bell Tolls丧钟为谁而鸣
    短篇小说:Men Without Women没有女人的男人;The Winners Take Notheing胜者无所获;The Fifth Column and First Forty-nine Stories第五纵队与首次发表的四十九个短篇
    政论:To Have and Have Not贫与富    回忆录:A Moveable Feast到处逍遥   
    66、Hart Crane哈特·克兰1899-1932 My Grandfather’s Love Letters祖父的情书;Praise for an Urn瓮颂;For the Marriage of Faustus and Hellen为浮士德和海伦的婚姻而作;Voyage航海;The Bridge桥(长诗);White Buildings白色的楼房(首部诗集)   
    67、Thomas Wolfe托马斯·沃尔夫1900-1938 Look Homeward,Angel天使,望乡→(续)Of Time and the River时间与河流;The Web and the Rock蛛网与岩石;You Can’t Go Home Again有家归不得;The Hills Beyond远山(未完成)
    短篇小说:From Death to Morning从死亡到早晨   
    68、James Langston Hughes詹姆斯·兰斯顿·休斯1902-1969 Mulatto混血儿(剧本);The Weary Blues疲倦的歌声;Dear Lovely Death亲爱的死神;Shakespear in Harlem哈莱姆的莎士比亚;I Wonder as I Wander我漂泊我思考;The Best of Simple辛普尔精选   
    69、John Steinbeck约翰·斯坦贝克1902-1966 Cup of Gold金杯;Tortilla Flat煎饼房;In Dubious Battle胜负未定;Of Mice and Men鼠和人;The Grapes of Wrath愤怒的葡萄;The Moon is Down月亮下去了;Cannery Row罐头厂街;The Pearl珍珠
    短篇小说:The Red Pony小红马(The Gift,The Great Mountains大山;The Promise许诺,The Leader of the People人们的领袖)   
    70、Nathanael West韦斯特1903-1940 The Dream Life of Balso Snell巴尔索·斯纳尔的梦幻生涯;The Day of Locust蝗灾之日;Miss Lonelyhearts寂寞小说   
    71、James Farrel 法雷尔1904-1979 Studs Lonigan斯塔兹·朗尼根(Young Lonigan少年朗尼根;The Young Manhood of Studs Lonigan朗尼根的青年时代,Judgement Day末日窝审判);Danny O’Neil丹尼·奥尼尔(五部曲);Bernard Carr伯纳德·卡尔(三部曲)
    短篇小说:Calico Shoes花布鞋;Guillotine Party行刑队
    文艺评论:A Note on Literary Criticism文艺评论札记;Literature and Morality文学与道德   
    72、Lillian Hellman丽莲·海尔曼1905-1983 The Children’s Hour孩子们的时光;The Little Foxes小狐狸;Watch on the Rhine守望莱茵河;The Searching Wind彻骨的风;The Autumn Garden秋园 ;Tos in the Attic阁楼里的玩具;The Days to Come未来的日子;Another Part of the Forest森林的另一处
    回忆录:An Unfinished Wonman一个事业尚未终了的女人;Pentimento旧画新貌;Scoundrel Time邪恶的时代   
    73、Clifford Odets克利福德·奥德茨1906-1963 Waiting for Lefty等待老左/勒夫特;Awake and Sing!醒来歌唱;Till the Day I Die直到我死的那天;Paradise Lost失乐园;Golden Boy金孩子;Clash by Night夜间冲突;The Big Knife大刀;The Country Girl乡村姑娘;The Flowering Peach开花的桃树   
    74、Richard Wright理查德·赖特1908-1960 Uncle Tom’s Children汤姆叔叔的孩子们;Native Son土生子;Black Boy;黑孩子The Outsiders局外人;The Long Dream漫长的梦;Eight Men八人行   
    75、Eudora Welty尤多拉·韦尔蒂1906- 短篇小说:Death of a Travelling,Salesman巡回推销员之死;A Curtain of Green and Other Stories绿窗帘和其他;The Wide Net and Other Stories大网和其他故事;The Golden Apples金苹果;The Bridge of Innifallen英尼斯法伦的新娘
    长篇小说:The Robber Bridgeroom强盗新朗;Detta Wedding德尔塔的婚姻;The Ponder Heart庞德的心;The Losing Battles失败的战斗;The Optismist’s Daughter乐观者的女儿   
    76、Valdimir Nabokov弗·纳博科夫1899-1977 Lolita洛莉塔;Pale Fire微暗的火;The Admiralty Sprie海军部大厦塔尖   
    77、Anais Nin安娜伊思·宁1903-1977 The Novel of Future未来的小说;Heida海达;House of Incest乱伦之家;Collages拼贴   
    78、Issac Bashevis Singer艾萨克·辛格1904-1991 Gimpel the Fool傻瓜吉姆佩尔;The Family Moskat莫斯卡特家族;Satan in Goray撒旦在戈雷;The Magician of Lublin卢布林的魔术师;The Slave奴隶;The Manor庄园;The Estate产业;Enenemies,A Love Story仇敌们,一个爱情故事;Shosha舒莎
    短篇小说:The Spinoza of Market Street市场街的斯宾诺莎;A Friend of Kafka卡夫卡的朋友
    名篇:Neighbours邻居   
    79、Robert Penn Warren罗伯特·沃伦1905-1989 Night Rider夜间骑士;At Heaven’s Gate在天堂门口;All King’s Men国王的全部人马;World Enough and Time足够的世界和时间;The Cave洞穴;Band of Angels天使的队伍;A Place to Come to归宿
    诗集:Thirtysix Poems;Selected Poems1923-1943;Brother to Dragons;Promised:Poems1954-1956;You,Emperors and Others;Selected Poems New and Old 1923-1966;Elven Poems on the Same Themet;Incarnation Poem1966-1968显灵:1966-1968诗选;Now and Then:Poems 1976-1978此时与彼时1976-1978诗选
    剧作:Proud Flesh骄傲的血肉之躯;Modern Rhetoric当代修辞学;Birth of Love爱之诞生(选自与Cleanth Brooks合编的  Understanding Poetry/Understanding Fiction)
    逃亡者集团The Fugitive的宣言书I’ll Take My Stand我表明我的立场   
    80、Tennessee William田纳西·威廉斯1911-1983 American Blues美国的布鲁斯;Battle of Angels天使的战斗;The Glass Menagerie玻璃动物园;The Streetcar Named Desire欲望号街车;Cat on a Hot Tin Roof热铁皮屋顶上的猫;The Night of The Iguana鬣蜥之夜;Summer and Smoke夏与烟;The Rose Tattoo玫瑰纹;Sweet Bird of Yout可爱的青春鸟   
    81、John Cheever约翰·契弗1912-1982 短篇小说:The Expelled开除
    短篇小说集:The Way Some People Live一些人的生活方式;The Enormous Radio and Other Stories巨型收音机和其他;The Housebreaker of Shaddy Hill and Other Stories绿茵山窃贼和其他;Some People,Places and Things That Will Not Appear in My Next Novel一些不会在我下一部小说中出现的人物、地点、事件;The Brigadier and the Golf Widow陆军准将和高尔夫迷寡妇;The World of Apples苹果世界→The Stories of John Cheever契弗短篇小说选
    长篇小说:The Wapshot Chronicle/Scandal瓦普肖特纪事/丑闻;Bullet Park布利特公园;Falconer鹰猎者   
    82、Irwin Shaw欧文·肖1913-1984 Bury the Dead埋葬死者;Sailor off the Bremen不来梅港外的水手
    长篇小说:The Young Lions幼狮;The Troubled Air混浊的空气;Lucy Crown露茜·克朗;Two Weeks in Another Town; Voices of a Summer Day夏日的喁喁声;Rich Man,Poor Man;Evening in Byzantium;Nightwork认夜工;Beggarman,Thief;Bread upon the Waters   
    83、Ralph Ellison拉尔夫·埃利林1914- 长篇小说:Invisible Man看不见的人
    散文集:Shadow and Act影子与行动;Going to the Territory步入文学界   
    84、Bernard Malamud伯纳德·马拉默德1914-1986 长篇小说:The Natural天生运动员;The Assistant伙计;The Fixer装配工;A New Life新生活;God’s Grace上帝的恩赐        短篇小说:The Magic Barrel魔桶   
    85、Landall Jarrel兰达尔·贾维尔1914-1965 诗集:Blood for a Stranger献给一个陌生人的血;Little Friend ,Little Friend小朋友,小朋友;Losses损失;Seven-league Crutches七里格长的拐杖;The Lost World失去的世界
    小说:Pictures of an Institution学院小景;The Woman at the Washington Zoo华盛顿动物园的女人
    评论:Poetry and the Age诗歌与时代;The Death of the Ball Turret Gunner旋转炮塔炮手之死   
    86、John Berryman约翰·贝里曼1914-1972 诗:Homage to Mrs Bradstreet献给布拉兹特里夫人;The Dream Songs梦之歌;Poems1942;The Dispossessed被剥夺者(The Ball Poem小球诗);77 Dream Songs;Berryman’s Sonnets;Short Poems;His Toy;His Dream;His Rest;Love and Fame;Delusion,etc错觉及其他
    小说:Recovery复原       传记:Stephen Crane斯蒂芬·克莱恩   
    87、Saul Bellow索尔·贝娄1915- 长篇小说:Dangling Man晃来晃去/挂起来的人;The Victim受害者;The Adventure of Augie March奥基·马奇历险记;Henderson the Rain King雨王汉德逊;Herzog赫索格;Mr Summlar’s Planet塞姆勒先生的行星;Humboldt’s Gift洪堡的礼物
    中篇小说:Seize the Day且乐今朝   
    88、Arthur Miller阿瑟·米勒1915- Situation No

  • Mark Twain

    2008-06-04 16:48:30

    Samuel Langhorne Clemens (November 30, 1835April 21, 1910),[1] better known by the pen name Mark Twain, was an American humorist, satirist, lecturer and writer. Twain is most noted for his novels Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, which has since been called the Great American Novel,[2] and The Adventures of Tom Sawyer. He is also known for his quotations.[3][4] During his lifetime, Twain became a friend to presidents, artists, industrialists and European royalty.

    Twain enjoyed immense public popularity, and his keen wit and incisive satire earned him praise from both critics and peers. American author William Faulkner called Twain "the father of American literature."[5] 

    Early life

    Samuel Langhorne Clemens was born in Florida, Missouri, on November 30, 1835 to a Tennessee country merchant, John Marshall Clemens (August 11, 1798March 24, 1847), and Jane Lampton Clemens (June 18, 1803October 27, 1890).[6] He was the sixth of seven children. Only three of his siblings survived childhood: his brothers Orion (July 17, 1825December 11, 1897) and Henry (July 13, 1838June 21, 1858) and his sister Pamela (September 19, 1827August 31, 1904). His sister Margaret (May 31, 1830August 17, 1839) died when Twain was four years old, and his brother Benjamin (June 8, 1832May 12, 1842) died three years later. Another brother, Pleasant (1828–1829), died at the age of six months. [7] He was born two weeks after the closest approach to Earth of Halley's Comet (see 1835 comment).

    When Twain was four, his family moved to Hannibal,[8] a port town on the Mississippi River that would serve as the inspiration for the fictional town of St. Petersburg in The Adventures of Tom Sawyer and Adventures of Huckleberry Finn.[9] At that time, Missouri was a slave state in the Union, and young Twain became familiar with the institution of slavery, a theme he later explored in his writing.

    In March 1847, when Twain was 11, his father died of pneumonia.[10] The following year, he became a printer's apprentice. In 1851, he began working as a typesetter and contributor of articles and humorous sketches for the Hannibal Journal, a newspaper owned by his brother, Orion. When he was 18, he left Hannibal and worked as a printer in New York City, Philadelphia, St. Louis, and Cincinnati. He joined the union and educated himself in public libraries in the evenings, finding wider sources of information than he would have at a conventional school.[11] At 22, Twain returned to Missouri. On a voyage to New Orleans down the Mississippi, the steamboat pilot, Horace E. Bixby, inspired Twain to pursue a career as a steamboat pilot; it was a richly rewarding occupation with wages set at $250 per month,[12] equivalent to $155,000 a year today.

    Because the steamboats at the time were constructed of very dry flammable wood, no lamps were allowed, making night travel a precarious endeavor. A steamboat pilot needed a vast knowledge of the ever-changing river to be able to stop at any of the hundreds of ports and wood-lots along the river banks. Twain meticulously studied 2,000 miles (3,200 km) of the Mississippi for more than two years before he received his steamboat pilot license in 1859. While training, Samuel convinced his younger brother Henry to work with him. Henry was killed on June 21, 1858, when the steamboat he was working on, the Pennsylvania, exploded. Twain had foreseen this death in a detailed dream a month earlier,[13] which inspired his interest in parapsychology; he was an early member of the Society for Psychical Research.[14] Twain was guilt-stricken over his brother's death and held himself responsible for the rest of his life. However, he continued to work on the river and served as a river pilot until the American Civil War broke out in 1861 and traffic along the Mississippi was curtailed.

    Travels and family

    Missouri was a slave state and considered by many to be part of the South, but it did not join the Confederacy. When the war began, Twain and his friends formed a Confederate militia (depicted in an 1885 short story, "The Private History of a Campaign That Failed"), which drilled for only two weeks before disbanding.[15] Twain joined his brother, Orion, who had been appointed secretary to the territorial governor of Nevada, James W. Nye, and headed west.

    Twain and his brother traveled for more than two weeks on a stagecoach across the Great Plains and the Rocky Mountains, visiting the Mormon community in Salt Lake City along the way. These experiences became the basis of the book Roughing It, and provided material for The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras County. Twain's journey ended in the silver-mining town of Virginia City, Nevada, where he became a miner.[15] Twain failed as a miner and found work at a Virginia City newspaper, the Territorial Enterprise.[16] On February 3, 1863, he signed a humorous travel account "LETTER FROM CARSON - re: Joe Goodman; party at Gov. Johnson's; music" with "Mark Twain".[17]

    Twain then traveled to San Francisco, California, where he continued as a journalist and began lecturing. He met other writers such as Bret Harte, Artemus Ward and Dan DeQuille. An assignment in Hawaii became the basis for his first lectures.[18] In 1867, a local newspaper funded a trip to the Mediterranean. During his tour of Europe and the Middle East, he wrote a popular collection of travel letters which were compiled as The Innocents Abroad in 1869.

    Twain met Charles Langdon, who showed him a picture of his sister Olivia; Twain claimed to have fallen in love at first sight. They met in 1868, were engaged a year later, and married in February 1870 in Elmira, New York.[18] She came from a "wealthy but liberal family", and through her he met abolitionists, "socialists, principled atheists and activists for women’s rights and social equality", including Harriet Beecher Stowe, Frederick Douglass and the utopian socialist William Dean Howells[19].

    The couple lived in Buffalo, New York from 1869 to 1871. Twain owned a stake in the Buffalo Express, and worked as an editor and writer. Their son Langdon died of diphtheria at 19 months.

    In 1871[20], Twain moved his family to Hartford, Connecticut, where starting in 1873 he arranged the building of a dramatic house for them, which local admirers saved from demolition in 1927 and eventually turned into a museum focused on him. There Olivia gave birth to three daughters: Susy (1872-1896), Clara (1874-1962) [21], and Jean (1880-1909). The couple's marriage lasted 34 years, until Olivia's death in 1904.

    During his years in Hartford, Twain became friends with fellow author William Dean Howells.

    Later life and death

    Twain made a second tour of Europe, described in the 1880 book, A Tramp Abroad. His tour included a visit to London where, in the summer of 1900, he was the guest of newspaper proprietor Hugh Gilzean-Reid at Dollis Hill House. Twain wrote of Dollis Hill that he had "never seen any place that was so satisfactorily situated, with its noble trees and stretch of country, and everything that went to make life delightful, and all within a biscuit's throw of the metropolis of the world."[22] He returned to America in 1900, having earned enough to pay off his debts.

    In 1906, Twain began his autobiography in the North American Review. Oxford University awarded him a Doctorate in Letters a year later.

    Twain outlived Jean and Susy. He passed through a period of deep depression, which began in 1896 when his favorite daughter Susy died of meningitis. Olivia's death in 1904 and Jean's death on December 24, 1909, deepened his gloom.[23]

    In 1909, Twain is quoted as saying:[24]

    I came in with Halley's Comet in 1835. It is coming again next year, and I expect to go out with it. It will be the greatest disappointment of my life if I don't go out with Halley's Comet. The Almighty has said, no doubt: 'Now here are these two unaccountable freaks; they came in together, they must go out together.'

    His prediction was accurate—Twain died of a heart attack on April 21, 1910 in Redding, Connecticut, one day after the comet's closest approach to Earth (see Halley's Comet, 1835 entry).

    In the New York Journal, in 1897, Twain said "The report of my death was an exaggeration."

    Upon hearing of Twain's death, President Taft said:[25][26]

    Mark Twain gave pleasure—real intellectual enjoyment—to millions, and his works will continue to give such pleasure to millions yet to come... His humor was American, but he was nearly as much appreciated by Englishmen and people of other countries as by his own countrymen. He has made an enduring part of American literature.

    Mark Twain is buried in his wife's family plot in Elmira, New York.

    Life as a writer

    Career overview

    Twain began his career writing light, humorous verse but evolved into a grim, almost profane chronicler of the vanities, hypocrisies and murderous acts of mankind. At mid-career, with Huckleberry Finn, he combined rich humor, sturdy narrative and social criticism. Twain was a master at rendering colloquial speech and helped to create and popularize a distinctive American literature built on American themes and language. Many of Mark Twain's works have been suppressed at times for various reasons. Adventures of Huckleberry Finn has been repeatedly restricted in American high schools, not least for its frequent use of the word "nigger", which was a common term when the book was written.

    Unfortunately, a complete bibliography of his works is nearly impossible to compile because of the vast number of pieces wrtten by Clemens (often in obscure newspapers) and his use of several different pennames. Additionally, many believe that a large portion of his speeches and lectures have been lost or simply were not written down; thus, the collection of Clemens's works is an ongoing process. Researchers have rediscovered published material by Twain as recently as 1995.[27]

    Early journalism and travelogues

    Mark Twain’s first important work, The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras County, was first published in the New York Saturday Press on November 18, 1865. The only reason it was published there was because his story arrived too late to be included in a book Artemus Ward was compiling featuring sketches of the wild American West.

    After this burst of popularity, Twain was commissioned by the Sacramento Union to write letters about his travel experiences for publication in the newspaper, his first of which was to ride the steamer Ajax in its maiden voyage to Hawaii, referred to at the time as the Sandwich Islands. These humorous letters proved the genesis to his work with the San Francisco Alta California newspaper, which designated him a traveling correspondent for a trip from San Francisco to New York City via the Panama isthmus. All the while Twain was writing letters meant for publishing back and forth, chronicling his experiences with his burlesque humor. On June 8, 1867, Twain set sail on the pleasure cruiser Quaker City for five months. This trip resulted in The Innocents Abroad or The New Pilgrims' Progress.

    This book is a record of a pleasure trip. If it were a record of a solemn scientific expedition it would have about it the gravity, that profundity, and that impressive incomprehensibility which are so proper to works of that kind, and withal so attractive. Yet not withstanding it is only a record of a picnic, it has a purpose, which is, to suggest to the reader how he would be likely to see Europe and the East if he looked at them with his own eyes instead of the eyes of those who traveled in those countries before him. I make small pretense of showing anyone how he ought to look at objects of interest beyond the sea – other books do that, and therefore, even if I were competent to do it, there is no need.

    In 1872, Twain published a second piece of travel literature, Roughing It, as a semi-sequel to Innocents. Roughing It is a semi-autobiographical account of Twain's journey to Nevada and his subsequent life in the American West. The book lampoons American and Western society in the same way that Innocents critiqued the various countries of Europe and the Middle East. Twain's next work kept Roughing It's focus on American society but focused more on the events of the day. Entitled The Gilded Age: A Tale of Today, it was not a travel piece, as his previous two books had been, and it was his first attempt at writing a novel. The book is also notable because it is Twain's only collaboration; it was written with his neighbor Charles Dudley Warner.

    Twain's next two works drew on his experiences on the Mississippi River. Old Times on the Mississippi, a series of sketches published in the Atlantic Monthly in 1875, featured Twain’s disillusionment with Romanticism. Old Times eventually became the starting point for Life on the Mississippi.

    Tom Sawyer and Huckleberry Finn

    Twain's next major publication was The Adventures of Tom Sawyer, which drew on his youth in Hannibal. The character of Tom Sawyer was modeled on Twain as a child, with traces of two schoolmates, John Briggs and Will Bowen. The book also introduced in a supporting role the character of Huckleberry Finn, based on Twain's boyhood friend Tom Blankenship.

    The Prince and the Pauper, despite a storyline that is omnipresent in film and literature today, was not as well received. Telling the story of two boys born on the same day who are physically identical, the book acts as a social commentary as the prince and pauper switch places. Pauper was Twain’s first attempt at fiction, and blame for its shortcomings are usually put on Twain having not been experienced enough in English society and the fact that it was produced after such a massive hit. In between the writing of Pauper, Twain had started Adventures of Huckleberry Finn (which he consistently had problems completing[28] and started and completed another travel book, A Tramp Abroad, which follows Twain as he travels through central and southern Europe.

    Twain’s next major published work, Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, solidified him as a noteworthy American writer. Some have called it the first Great American Novel. Finn was an offshoot from Tom Sawyer and proved to have a more serious tone than its predecessor. The main premise behind Huckleberry Finn is the young boy’s belief in the right thing to do even though the majority of society believes that it was wrong. The book has become required reading in many schools throughout the United States because Huck ignores the rules and mores of the age to follow what he thinks is just (the story takes place in the 1850s where slavery is present). Four hundred manuscrīpt pages of Huckleberry Finn were written in the summer of 1876, right after the publication of Tom Sawyer. Some accounts have Twain taking seven years off after his first burst of creativity, eventually finishing the book in 1883. Other accounts have Twain working on Finn in tandem with The Prince and the Pauper and other works in 1880 and other years. The last fifth of Finn is subject to much controversy. Some say that Twain experiences—as critic Leo Marx puts it—a "failure of nerve." Ernest Hemingway once said of Huckleberry Finn: “If you read it, you must stop where the Nigger Jim is stolen from the boys. That is the real end. The rest is just cheating.”[29]

    Near the completion of Huckleberry Finn, Twain wrote Life on the Mississippi, which is said to have heavily influenced the former book.[27] The work recounts Twain’s memories and new experiences after a 22-year absence from the Mississippi. The book is of note because Twain introduces the real meaning of his pseudonym.

    Later writing

    After his great work, Twain began turning to his business endeavors to keep them afloat and to stave off the increasing difficulties he had been having from his writing projects. Twain focused on President Ulysses S. Grant's Memoirs for his fledgling publishing company, finding time in between to write "The Private History of a Campaign That Failed" for The Century Magazine. This piece detailed his two-week stint in a Confederate militia during the Civil War. The name of his publishing company was Charles L. Webster & Company, which he owned with Charles L. Webster, his nephew by marriage.[30]

    Twain next focused on A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur's Court, which featured him making his first big pronouncement of disappointment with politics. Written with the same "historical fiction" style of The Prince and the Pauper, A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur's Court showed the absurdities of political and social norms by setting them in the court of King Arthur. The book was started in December 1885, then shelved a few months later until the summer of 1887, and eventually finished in the spring of 1889.

    Twain had begun to furiously write articles and commentary with diminishing returns to pay the bills and keep his business intentions afloat, but it was not enough because he filed for bankruptcy in 1894. His next large scale work, Pudd'nhead Wilson was written rapidly, as Twain was furiously trying to stave off the bankruptcy. In the month from November 12 to December 14, 1893, Twain wrote a staggering 60,000 words for the novel.[27] Critics have pointed to this rushed completion as the cause of the novel's rough organization and constant disruption of continuous plot. There were parallels between this work and Twain's financial failings, notably his desire to escape his current constraints and become a different person.

    Interestingly, the actual title of this novel is not clearly established. It was first published serially in Century Magazine, and when it was finally published in book form, "Pudd'nhead Wilson" appeared as the main title. However, the disputed "subtitles" make the entire title read, "The Tragedy of Pudd'nhead Wilson and the Comedy of The Extraordinary Twins." 查看(123) 评论(0) 收藏 推荐

  • British Writers and Works

    2008-05-31 12:28:18

    British Writers and Works

    The Anglo-Saxon Period

            The Venerable Bede 比得673~735
            Ecclesiastical History of the English People 英吉利人教会史
            Alfred the Great 阿尔弗雷得大帝849~899
            The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle 盎格鲁—萨克逊编年史

    The Late Medieval Age

            William Langland 威廉•兰格伦1332~1400
            Piers the Plowman 农夫比埃斯的梦
            Geoffery Chaucer 杰弗里•乔叟1340(?)~1400
            The Books of the Duchess悼公爵夫人
            Troilus and Criseyde特罗伊拉斯和克莱希德
            The Canterbury Tales坎特伯雷故事集
            The House of Fame声誉之宫
            Sir Thomas Malory托马斯•马洛里爵士1405~1471
            Le Morte D’Arthur亚瑟王之死

    The Renaissance

             Sir Philip Sydney菲利普•锡德尼爵士1554~1586
            The School of Abuse诲淫的学校
            Defense of Poesy诗辩
            Edmund Spenser埃德蒙•斯宾塞1552~1599
            The Shepherds Calendar牧人日历
            Amoretti爱情小唱
            Epithalamion婚后曲
            Colin Clouts Come Home Againe柯林•克劳特回来了
            Foure Hymnes四首赞美歌
            The Faerie Queene仙后
            Thomas More托马斯•莫尔1478~1535
            Utopia乌托邦
            Francis Bacon弗兰西斯•培根1561~1626
            Advancement of Learning学术的推进
            Novum Organum新工具
            Essays随笔
            Christopher Marlowe柯里斯托弗•马洛1564~1595
            Tamburlaine帖木耳大帝
            The Jew of Malta马耳他的犹太人
            The Tragical History of Doctor Faustus浮士德博士的悲剧
            William Shakespeare威廉•莎士比亚1564~1616
            Romeo and Juliet罗密欧与朱利叶
            Merchant of Venice威尼斯商人
            Henry IV亨利四世
            Julius Caesar尤利乌斯•凯撒
            As You Like It皆大欢喜
            Hamlet哈姆莱特
            Othello奥赛罗
            King Lear李尔王
            Macbeth麦克白
            Antony and Cleopatra安东尼与克里奥佩特拉
            Tempest暴风雨
            poetry: Venus and Adonis; The Rape of Lucrece (Venus and Lucrece); The Passionate Pilgrim, the Sonnets

    The 17th Century

            John Milton约翰•弥尔顿1608~1674
            L’Allegre 欢乐的人
            IL Pens eroso 沉思的人
            Comus柯玛斯
            Lycidas利西达斯
            Of Education论教育
            Areopagitica论出版自由
            The Defence of the English People为英国人民声辩
            The Second Defence of the English People再为英国人民声辩
            Paradise Lost失乐园
            Paradise Regained复乐园
            Samson Agonistes力士参孙
            John Bunyan约翰•班扬1628~1688
            Grace Abounding to the Chief of Sinners功德无量
            The Pilgrim’s Progress 天路历程
            The Life and Death of Mr Badman败德先生传
            The Holy War圣战
            John Dryden约翰•德莱顿1631~1700
            All for Love一切为了爱情
            Absalom and Achitophel押沙龙与阿齐托菲尔
            The Hind and Panther牝鹿与豹
            Annus Mirabilis神奇的年代
            Alexander’s Feast亚历山大的宴会
            An Essay of Dramatic Poesy 论戏剧诗

    The 18th Century

            Alexander Pope亚历山大•蒲柏1688~1744
            Essay on Criticism批评论
            Moral Essays道德论
            An Essay on Man人论
            The Rape of the Rock卷发遇劫记
            The Dunciad愚人记
            Samuel Johnson塞缪尔•约翰逊1709~1784
            The Dictionary of English Language英语辞典
            The Vanity of Human Wishes人类欲望之虚幻
            London伦敦
            The Lives of Great Poets诗人传
            Jonathan Swift乔纳森•斯威夫特1667~1745
            The Battle of Books书战
            A Tale of a Tub木桶的故事
            The Drapper’s Letters一个麻布商的书信
            A Modest Proposal一个小小的建议
            Gulliver’s Travels格列佛游记
            Daniel Defoe丹尼尔•笛福1660~1731
            The Review (periodical founded by Defoe)评论报
            Robinson Crusoe鲁宾逊漂流记
            Henry Fielding亨利•菲尔丁1707~1754
            The History of the Adventures of Joseph Andrews约瑟夫•安德鲁
            The Life of Mr Jonathan Wild, the Great大诗人江奈生•威尔德
            Amelia爱米利亚
            The History of Tom Jones, a Foundling汤姆•琼斯
            The Historical Register for 1736一七三六年历史记事
            Don Quixote in England堂吉柯德在英国
            Samuel Richardson塞缪尔•理查逊1689~1761
            Pamela (Virtue Rewarded)帕米拉
            Oliver Goldsmith奥利弗•格尔德斯密斯1730~1774
            The Traveller旅游人
            The Deserted Village荒村
            The Vicar of Wakefield威克菲尔德牧师传
            The Good Natured Man好心人
            She Stoops to Conquer屈身求爱
            The Citizens of the World世界公民
            Thomas Gray托马斯•格雷1716~1771
            An Elegy Written in a Country Churchyard墓园挽诗
            Ode on the Death of a Favourite Cat爱猫之死
            The Bard游吟诗人
            Richard Brinsley Sheridan理查德•布林斯利•施莱登1751~1816
            The Rivals情敌
            The School for Scandal造谣学校
            St. Patrick’s Day (The Scheming Lieutenant)圣•派特立克节
            The Duenna伴娘
            The Critic批评家

    The Romantic Age

            Robert Burns罗伯特•彭斯1759~1796
            Poems Chiefly in the Scottish Dialect主要用苏格兰方言写的诗
            John Anderson, My Jo约翰•安德生,我的爱人
            A Red, Red Rose一朵红红的玫瑰
            Auld Long Syne往昔时光
            A Man’s a Man for A’That不管那一套
            My Heart’s in the Highlands我的心在那高原上
            William Blake威廉•布莱克1757~1827
            Songs of Innocence天真之歌
            Songs of Experience经验之歌
            America亚美利加
            Europe欧罗巴
            Milton弥尔顿
            Jerusalem耶路撒冷
            The Marriage of Heaven and Hell天堂与地狱的婚姻
            William Wordsworth威廉•华兹华斯1770~1850
            We Are Seven我们是七个
            The Solitary Reaper孤独的割麦女
            Imitations of Immortality from Recollections of Early Childhood不朽颂
            The Prelude序曲
            Lyrical Ballads抒情歌谣集
            Samuel Taylor Coleridge塞缪尔•泰勒•科尔律治1772~1834
            The Rime of the Ancient Mariner古舟子颂
            Christabel柯里斯塔贝尔
            Kubla Khan忽必烈汗
            Frost at Night半夜冰霜
            Dejection, an Ode忧郁颂
            Biographia Literaria文学传记
            George Gordon Byron乔治•戈登•拜伦1788~1824
            Childe Harold’s Pilgrimage恰尔德•哈罗德尔游记
            Manfred曼弗雷德
            Cain该隐
            Don Juan唐•璜
            When We Two Parted当初我们俩分别
            Persy Bysshe Shelley波西•比希•雪莱1792~1822
            Queen Mab麦步女王
            Revolt of Islam伊斯兰的反叛
            The Cenci钦契一家
            The Masque of Anarchy, Hellas专制者的假面游行
            Prometheus Unbound解放了的普罗米修斯
            Ode to the West Wind西风颂
            To a Skylark致云雀
            John Keats约翰•济慈1795~1821
            On a Grecian Urn希腊古瓮颂
            Ode to a Nightingale夜莺颂
            Ode to Autumn秋颂
            To Psyche普塞克颂
            On First Looking in Chapman’s Homer初读查普曼翻译的荷马史诗有感
            Sir Walter Scott沃尔特•斯科特爵士1771~1832
            The Lady of the Lake湖上夫人
            Waverley威弗利
            Guy Mannering盖曼纳令
            Rob Roy罗伯•罗伊
            Ivanhoe艾凡赫
            Kenilworth肯纳尔沃斯堡
            Quentin Durward昆廷•达沃德
            St. Ronan’s Wells圣罗南之泉
            Jane Austen简•奥斯丁1775~1817
            Sense and Sensibility理智与情感
            Pride and Prejudice傲慢与偏见
            Mansfield Park曼斯菲尔德庄园
            Emma爱玛
            Northanger Abbey诺桑觉寺
            Persuasion劝导
            Charles Lamb查尔斯•兰姆1775~1834
            Tales from Shakespeare莎士比亚戏剧故事集
            John Woodvil约翰•伍德维尔

    The Victorian Age

            Charles Dickens查尔斯•狄更斯1812~1870
            Sketches by Boz波兹特写
            The Posthumous Papers of the Pickwick Club匹克威克外传
            Oliver Twist奥利弗•特维斯特(雾都孤儿)
            The Old Curiosity Shop老古玩店
            Barnaby Rudge巴纳比•拉奇
            American Notes美国杂记
            Martin Chuzzlewit马丁•朱淑尔维特
            A Christmas Carol圣诞颂歌
            The Chimes教堂钟声
            The Cricket on the Hearth灶上蟋蟀
            Dombey and Son董贝父子
            David Copperfield大卫•科波菲尔
            Bleak House荒凉山庄
            Hard Times艰难时世
            Little Dorrit小杜丽
            A Tale of Two Cities双城记
            Great Expectations远大前程
            Our Mutual Friend我们共同的朋友
            Edwin Drood艾德温•朱特
            William Makepeace Thackeray威廉•麦克匹斯•萨克雷1811~1863
            Vanity Fair名利场
            Pendennis潘登尼斯
            The Newcomers纽克姆一家
            The History of Henry Esmond亨利•埃斯蒙德
            Charlotte Bronte夏洛蒂•勃朗特1816~1855
            Professor教师
            Jane Eyre简•爱
            Shirley雪莉
            Villette维莱特
            Emily Bronte艾米莉•勃朗特1818~1854
            Wuthering Heights呼啸山庄
            George Eliot乔治•艾略特1819~1880
            Adam Bede亚当•比德
            The Mill on the Floss弗洛斯河上的磨坊
            Silas Marner织工马南
            Romola罗慕拉
            Felix Holt菲利克斯•霍尔特
            Middlemarch米德尔马契
            Daniel Deronda丹尼尔•德龙拉
            Thomas Hardy托马斯•哈代1840~1928
            A Pair of Blue Eyes一双蓝眼睛
            The Trumpet Major号兵长
            Desperate Remedies非常手段
            The Hand of Ethelberta艾塞尔伯塔的婚姻
            Under the Greenwood Tree绿荫下
            Far from the Madding Crowd远离尘嚣
            The Mayor of Casterbridge卡斯特桥市长
            Tess of the D’Urbervilles德伯家的苔丝
            Jude the Obscure无名的裘德
            Alfred Tennyson阿尔弗莱德•丁尼生1809~1892
            In Memoriam悼念
            Break, Break, Break冲击、冲击、冲击
            Idylls of the King国王叙事诗
            Robert Browning罗伯特•白朗宁1812~1889
            Dramatic Lyrics戏剧抒情诗
            Dramatic Romances and Lyrics戏剧故事及抒情诗
            Men and Women男男女女
            Dramatic Personae登场人物
            The Ring and the Book环与书
            Elizabeth Barrett Browning伊丽莎白•芭蕾特•白朗宁1806~1861
            Sonnets from the Portuguese葡萄牙十四行诗
            The Cry of the Children孩子们的哭声
            John Ruskin约翰•罗斯金1819~1900
            Modern Painters现代画家
            The Seven Lamps of Architecture建筑的七盏明灯
            The Stone of Venice威尼斯石头
            Oscar Wilde奥斯卡•王尔德1856~1900
            The Happy Prince and Other Tales快乐王子故事集
            The Picture of Dorian Gray多利安•格雷的画像
            Lady Windermere’s Fan温德米尔夫人的扇子
            A Woman of No Importance一个无足轻重的女人
            An Ideal Husband理想的丈夫
            The Importance of Being Earnest认真的重要

  • 英国文学作家作品汇总

    2008-05-31 12:07:15

    英国文学

    1、 Geoffrey Chaucer杰佛利·乔叟1340-1400 长诗:The House of Fame声誉之堂;Troilus and Criseyde特罗勒斯与克丽西德小说:Canterbury Tales坎特伯雷故事集----英国文学史上现实主义第一部杰作(他是最早有人文主义思想的作家,现实主义文学的奠基人)

    2、 William Shakespeare莎士比亚1564-1616 The Tempest暴风风雨;The Two Gentlemen of Veronaz维罗纳二绅士;The Mercy Wives of Windsor温莎的风流妇人;Measure for Measure恶有恶报;The Comedy of Errors错中错;Much Ado about Nothing无事自扰;Love’s Labour’s Lost空爱一场;A Midsummer Night’s Dream仲夏夜之梦;The Merchant of Venice威尼斯商人;As You Like It如愿;The Taming of the Shrew驯悍记;All’s Well That Ends Well皆大欢喜;Twelfth Night第十二夜;The Winter’s Tale冬天的故事;The Life and Death of King John/Richard the Second/Henry the Fifth/Richard the Third约翰王/理查二世/亨利五世/理查三世;The First/Second Part of King Henry the Fourth亨利四世(上、下);The First/Second/Third Part of King Henry the Sixth亨利六世(上、中、下);The Life of King Henry the Eighth亨利八世;Troilus and Cressida脱爱勒斯与克莱西达;The Tragedy of Coriolanus考利欧雷诺斯;Titus Andronicus泰特斯·安庄尼克斯;Romeo and Julet罗密欧与朱丽叶;Timon of Athens雅典的泰门;The Life and Death of Julius Caesar;朱利阿斯·凯撒;The Tragedy of Macbeth麦克白;The Tragedy of Hamlet哈姆雷特/王子复仇记;King Lear李尔王;Othello奥塞罗;Antony and Cleopatra安东尼与克利欧佩特拉;Cymbeline辛白林;Pericles波里克利斯;Venus and Adonis维诺斯·阿都尼斯;Lucrece露克利斯;The Sonnets十四行诗

    3、Francis Bacon培根1561-1626 Advancement of Learning学术的进展;Novum Organum新工具;New Atlantic新大西岛;Essays论文集(Of Studies论学习;Of Wisdom for a Man’s Self)

    4、 John Milton约翰·弥尔顿1608-1674 L‘Allegro欢乐的人;Il Penseroso沉思的人;Comus科马斯;Lycidas列西达斯;Areopagitica论出版自由;Pro Populo Anglicano Defense为英国人民声辩; Pro Populo Anglicano Defense Secunda再为英国人民声辩;Paradise Lost失乐园;Paradise Regained复乐园;Samson Agonistes力士参孙

    5、John Bunyan班扬1628-1688 The Pilgrim’s Progress天路历程;The Life and Death of Mr Badman培德曼先生的一生


    6、Joseph Addison艾迪生 诗:The Campaign 远征; 剧本:Cato加图名文;Adventure of A shilling一先令的历险

    7、Richard Steele理查德·斯梯尔1672-1729 The Christian Hero基督教徒的英雄名文:The Spectator Club旁观者俱乐部

    8、 Danniel Defoe丹尼尔·迪福1660-1731 (标志着近代英国小说的形成)Hymn to the Pillory枷刑颂;Robinson Crusoe鲁宾孙飘流记;Captain Singleton辛格顿船长;Moll Flanders莫尔弗兰德斯;A Journal of the Plague Year大疫年日记

    9、Jonathan Swift斯威夫特1667-1745 The Battle of Books书的战争;A Tale of A Tub一个木桶的故事;The Drapier’s Letters布商的书信;A Modest Proposal一个温和的建议;Guilliver’s Travels格列佛游记(A Voyage to Lilliput/Brobdingnag/Laputa,Balnibarbi,Luggnagg,Glubbdubdriba and Japan/The Country of the Houyhnhnms小人国/大人国/拉普他等地/智马国游记)

    10、 Alexander Pope蒲柏1688-1744 Pastorals田园诗集;An Essay on Criticism批评论;Windsor Forest温莎林;The Rape of the Lock卷发遇劫记;The Duncial愚人志;Moral Essays道德论;An Essay on Man人论;Epistle to Dr Arbuthnot与阿布斯诺博士书


    11、Henry Fielding亨利·菲尔丁1707-1754(英国现实主义小说的奠基者) 剧本:The Coffeehouse Politician咖啡屋政客;Don Quixote in England堂·吉诃德在英国;The Historical Register for the Year历史记事长篇小说:The History of the Adventures of Joseph Andrews,and of His Friend Mr Abraham Adams约瑟·安德鲁传;The Life of Mr Jonathan Wild the Great大伟人江奈生·魏尔德传;The History of Tom Jones,a Foundling汤姆·琼斯;Amelia阿美利亚

    12、Samuel Johnson塞缪尔·约翰生1709-1784 A Dictionary of the Engligh Language英语语言辞典;Lives of Poets诗人传;Vanity of Human Wishes人类欲望的虚幻;Rasselas拉塞勒斯名文:Letter to Lord Chesterfield给吉士菲尔伯爵的信

    13、 Oliver Goldsmith哥尔斯密1728-1774 The Vicar of Wakefield威克菲尔德牧师传;The Citizen of the World世界公民;The Deserted荒村;She Stoops to Conquer屈身求爱;The Rivals情敌 ;The School for Scsanda造谣学校

    14、William Blake布莱克1757-1827 Poetical Sketches素描诗集;Songs of Innocence天真之歌;Songs of Experience经验之歌The French Revolution法国革命;The Marriage of Heaven and Hell天堂与地狱的婚姻;America;Milton;Jerusalem名诗:London;The Tiger

    15、 Robert Burns彭斯1759-1796 Poems Chiefly in the Scottish Dialect苏格兰方言诗集名诗:The Tree of Liberty自由村;Scots Wha-Hae苏格兰人;The Two Dogs两只狗;Holy Willie’s Prayer威利长老的祈祷;My Heart’s in the Highlands我的心呀在高原;A Red,Red Rose一朵红红的玫瑰;John Anderson约翰·安德生,My Jo;A Man’s A Man for A’That不管身在何处都须保持尊严;Robert Bruce’s March to Bannockburn


    16、 William Wordsworth威廉·华兹华斯1770-1850 An Evening Walk黄昏漫步;Lyrical Ballads抒情歌谣集(与柯勒律治合编);Lucy Poems露西组诗(She Dwett Among the Untrodden Ways;To the Cuckoo杜鹃颂;I Wandered Lonely as a Cloud;The Solitary Reaper孤寂的刈麦人);Ode on Intimations of Immorality不朽颂;Ode to Duty义务颂;The Excursion远足;The Prelude序曲

    17、Samuel Taylor Coleridge柯勒律治1772-1834 Lyrical Ballads;The Fall of the Bastille巴士底狱的毁灭;The Rime of the Ancient Mariner老船夫;Kubla Khan忽必烈汗;Biographia Literaria文学传记

    18、Walter Scott瓦尔特·司各特1771-1832 诗:The Minstrlsy of the Scottish Border苏格兰边区歌谣集;Marimion玛里恩;The Lady of the Lake湖上夫人小说:Waverley威弗利;Guy Mannering盖·曼纳令;Rob Roy罗布罗伊;The Heart of Midlothian米德洛西恩监狱;Ivanhoe艾凡赫;Kenilworth坎尼尔华斯;Woodstock皇家猎馆;Queentin Durward昆廷·达沃

    19、Jane Austin简·奥斯丁1775-1817 Pride and Prejudice傲慢与偏见;Sense and Sensibility理智与情感;Emma爱玛;Mansfield Park曼斯菲尔德公园;Persuasion好事多磨;Northanger Abbey诺桑觉寺

    20、Charles Lamb查尔斯·兰姆1775-1834 Tales from Shakespeare莎士比亚故事集;Alburn Verses诗集;Essay of Elia伊利亚散文集(Dream Children梦中儿女;A Dissertation unpon Roast Pig烤猪论;Old China古瓷;New Year’s Eve除夕;The Praise of Chimney Sweepers扫烟囱童工赞;The Superannuated Man领取养老金的人;A Bachelor’s Complaint of the behavīor of Married People单身汉对结过婚的人的行为的抱怨)


    21、William Hazlitt威廉·赫兹里特1778-1830 Characters of Shakespeare’s Plays莎剧中的人物;A View of the English Stage英国舞台一瞥;Lecture on the English Poets论英国诗人;The Spirit of the Age时代精神;Sketches and Essays素描与随笔;Table Talk桌边文谈名文:On Familiar Style

    22、George Gordon Byron乔治·拜伦1788-1824 Hours of Idliness懒散的时刻;English Bords and Scottish Reviewers英国诗人与苏格兰评论家;Childe Harold’s Pilgrimage,Cantos I and II,Canto III 1818恰罗德·哈罗德游记;Ode to the Framers of the Frame-bill编织机法案编制者颂;Oriental Tales东方叙事诗(The Bride of Abydos阿比道斯的新娘;The Corsa海盗;The Siege of Corinth柯林斯之围);Manfred曼弗雷德;The Age of Bronze青铜世纪;Don Juan唐·璜名诗:She Walks in Beauty;The Isles of Greece

    23、 Percy Bysshe Shelley波西·比希·雪莱1792-1822 Queen Mab麦布女王;Prometheus Unbound解放了的普罗米修斯;Adonais阿东尼斯;The Cenci钦契;Song to the Men of England致英国人民;England in 1819;The Masque of Anarchy专制魔王的化装游行;Ode to the West Wind/a Skylark西风/云雀颂;A Defence of Poetry诗辩

    24、John Keats约翰·济兹1795-1821 Endymion恩底弥翁;Isabella伊莎贝拉;The Eve of Sanit Agnes圣爱尼节前夜;Ode on a Grecian Urn希腊古瓮颂;Ode to a Nightingale夜莺颂;To Autumn秋颂;Hyperion赫披里昂(未完成)

    25、Thomas Hood胡德1799-1845 The Song of the Shirt衬衫之歌;The Bridge of Sighs悲叹之桥;Miss Kilmansegg and Her Precious Leg基尔曼塞格小姐和她贵重的腿


    26、Ernest Jones琼斯1819-1869 小说:The Women’s Wrongs妇女们的委屈名诗:The Song of the Lower Class;The Song of the Future

    27、 Afred Tennyson丁尼生1809-1892 Poems of Two Brothers壎篪;Timbuctoo提姆巴克图;The Pricess公主;In Memoriam H H悼念哈拉姆;Maud毛黛;Enoch Arden伊诺克·阿登;Idylls of the King国王之歌名诗:Ulysses;The Eagle;Break,Break,Break

    28、Robert Browning 勃朗宁1812-1889 Paracelsus巴拉塞尔士;Strafford斯特拉福;Pippa Passes比芭走过;Dramatic Lyrics戏剧抒情诗;Dramatic Romances and Lyrics戏剧传奇与抒情诗(Home Thoughts;From Abroad;Prospice向前看);Dramatic Personae登场人物;Men and Women男男女女

    29、Elizabeth Barrel Browning 1806-1861 Sonnets from the Portuguese葡萄牙十四行诗;The Cry of the Children

    30、 Charles Dickens狄更斯1812-1870 The Posthumous Papers of the Pickwick Club匹克威克外传;Oliver Twist奥利弗·退斯特;American Notes美国札记;Martin Chuzzlewit马丁·朱述尔维特;The Old Curiosity Shop老古玩店;Dombey and Son董贝父子;David Copperfield大卫·科波菲尔;Hard Times艰难时世;A Tale of Two Cities双城记;Great Expectation远大前程

    31、William MakepeaceThackery萨克雷1811-1863 The Book of Snobs势利者集;Vanity Fair名利场;History of Pendennis潘丹尼斯的历史;The History of Henry Esmond亨利·艾斯芒的历史;The Newcomes纽可谟一家;The Virginians弗吉尼亚人

    32、 Elizabeth Cleghorn Gaskell盖斯凯尔1810-1865 Mary Barton玛丽·巴顿;Ruth露斯;Cranford克兰弗德;North and South北与南;Life of Charlote Bronte夏洛蒂勃郎特传

    33、Charlote/Emily/Anne Bronte夏洛蒂/爱米丽/安妮·勃郎特1816-1855 Jane Eyre简爱;Shirley雪丽/Wuthering Height呼啸山庄/Agones Grey艾格尼斯·格雷

    34、 George Eliot爱略特1819-1880 Adam Bede亚当·贝德;The Mill on the Floss弗洛斯河上的磨坊;Silas Marner织工马南;Middlemarch米德尔马契;Felix Holt,the Radical

    35、 Thomas Carlyle卡莱尔1795-1881 Sartor Resartus衣裳哲学/旧衣新裁;The Life of Schiller席勒传;The French Revolution;Heroes and Hero-worship论英雄与英雄崇拜


    36、 George Meredith梅瑞狄斯1828-1909 诗:Modern Love;Poems and Lyrics of the Joy of Earth大地欢歌小说:The Ordeal of Richard Feverel理查德·法弗尔的考验;The Egoist利己主义者;Diana of the Crossways彷徨中的戴安娜;The Idea of Comedy and the Uses of the Comic Spirit喜剧的概念与喜剧精神的作用

    37、William Morris莫里斯1834-1896 诗:The Earthly Paradise地上乐园;Chants of Socialism社会主义歌集;Pilgrims of Hope希望的探求者小说:A Dream of John Ball梦见给翰·保尔;News from Nowher乌有乡消息

    38、Samuel Butler勃特勒1835-1902 The Way of All Flesh如此人生;Erewhon埃瑞璜;Erewhon Revisited重游埃瑞璜

    39、 Thomas Hardy哈代1840-1928 Under the Greenwood Tree绿茵下;Far from the Madding Crowd远离尘嚣;The Return of the Native还乡;The Mayor of Casterbridge卡斯特桥市长;Tess of the D’urbervilles德伯家的苔丝;Jude the Obscure无名的裘德诗集:Wessex Poems 威塞克斯诗集 史诗剧:The Dynasts统治者三部曲

    40、 Robert Couis Stevenson史蒂文生1850-1894 小说:New Arabian Nights新天方夜谭;Treasure Island宝岛;The Strange Case of Dr Jeykell and Mr Hyde化身博士;Kidnapped诱拐游记:An Inland Voyage内陆游记;Travels with a Donkey in the Cevennes骑驴旅行;A Child’s Garden of Verses儿童诗园


    41、Isabella Augusta Gregory/Perse格葛瑞/珀斯1852-1932 The Travelling Man旅行者;Spreading the News道听途说;Hyachinth Halvey海钦斯·哈尔威;The Gaol Gate监牢之门;The Rising of the Moon月亮上升的时候

    42、Oscar Wilde王尔德1856-1900 长篇小说:The Picture of Dorian Gray道林·格雷的画像童话:The Happy Prince and Other Tales快乐王子诗集:De Prafundis惨痛的呼声;The Ballad of Reading Gaol累丁狱之歌剧作:Lady Windermere’s Fan温德米尔夫人的扇子;A Woman of No Importance一个无足轻重的妇女;An Ideal Husband理想丈夫;The Importance of Being Earnest埃耐斯特的重要性

    43、George Bernard Shaw萧伯纳1856-1950 长篇小说:An Unsocial Socialist业余社会主义者 评论:Quintessence of Ibsenism剧本:Widoer’s Houses鳏夫的房产;Mrs Warren’s Profession华伦夫人的职业The Devil’s Disciple魔鬼的门徒;Man and Superman人与超人;John Bull’s Other Island英国佬的另一个岛;Major Barbara巴巴拉少校;Pygmalion劈克美梁;Heartbreak House伤心之家;The Apple Cart苹果车;Too True to be Good真相毕露

    44、George Gissing吉辛1857-1903 小说:Demos民众;New Crub Srreet新穷士街;Born in Eile在流放中诞生;The Private Papers of Henry Ryecroft拉伊克罗夫特的日记(散文);Charles Dickens:A Critical Study狄更斯研究

    45、Joseph Conrad康拉德1859-1924 长篇小说:Almayer’s Folly奥尔迈耶的愚蠢;The Nigger of the Narcissus水仙号上的黑鬼;Lord Jim吉姆老爷;Nostromo诺斯特罗莫;The Secret Agent间谍;Chance机缘;Victory胜利短篇小说:An Outpost of Progress文明的前哨;Heart of Darkness黑暗的中心;Youth青春


    46、 Joseph Rudyard Kipling罗德雅德·吉卜林1865-1936 诗集:Barrak Room Ballad营房诗集;The Seven Seas七海;Recession and Other Poems赞美诗及其他;The Five Nations五国长篇小说:Kim基姆;Captain Courageous勇敢的船长短篇小说:Plain Tales from the Hills;Soldiers There;The Story of the Gadsby;Life Handcap生命的阻力;The Jungle Book;The Second Jungle Book林莽之书;The Lost Legion

    47、William Butler Yeats叶芝1865-1939 诗:Respondibilities责任;The Tower塔;The Winding Stair盘旋的楼梯名诗:A Deap Sworn Vow;Easter 1916剧本:The Land of Heart’s Desire理想的国土;The Hour Glass时漏;Dedidre黛德尔Autobiographies自传三部曲;Essays and Introduction

    48、Herbert George Wells威尔斯1866-1946 科幻小说:The Time Machine时间机器;The Island of Dr Morau莫洛博士岛;The Invisible Man隐身人;When the Sleeper Waked;The Shape of Things to Come未来事物的面貌 An Outline of World Histrory 世界史纲社会生活小说:Tono Bungay托诺·班格;Ann Veronica安·维罗尼卡;Kipps基普斯

    49、 Enoch Arnord Bennett阿诺德·本涅特1867-1931 A Man from the North北方人;Anna of the Five Towns五镇上的安娜;The Old Wives’ Tale老妇谭;Clayhanger克莱亨厄剧本:Milestones;How to Live Twentyfour Hours a Day

    50、 John Galworthy高尔斯华绥1867-1933 From the Four Winds天涯海角(The Man of Property有产业的人;In Chancery骑虎难下;To Let出租→The Forsyte Saga福尔塞世家);(The White Monkey白猿;The Silver Spoon银匙;Swan Song天鹅曲→A Modern Comedy现代喜剧)剧作:The Silver Box银匣;Strife斗争


    51、Saki萨奇(Hector Hugh Munro孟柔)1870-1916 短篇小说集:Reginald雷金纳德;Reginald in Russia;The Chronicles of Clovis克洛维斯记事;Beats and Super-beats;The Toys of Peace;The Square Egg方蛋名文:Dusk

    52、Edward Morgan Forster福斯特1879-1970 长篇小说:Where Angels Fear to Tread天使们忘而却步的地方;The Longest Journey最漫长的旅程;A Room with a View可以远眺的地方;A Passage to India印度之行短篇小说集:The Eternal Moment永恒的时刻散文集:Abinger Harvest在阿宾格村的收获;Two Cheers for Democracy

    53、 John Millington Synge沁孤1871-1909 The Playboy of the Western World西方世界的花花公子;Riders to the Sea骑马下海的人们;Deridre of Sorrows悲伤的黛达尔;In the Shade of the Glen在幽谷的阴影下;The Tinker’s Wedding补锅匠的婚礼

    54、Bertrand Russell罗素1872-1970 Road to Freedom到自由之路;Marriage and Morals婚姻与自由;Mysticism and Logic神秘主义与逻辑;Sceptical Essays怀疑论集;The Analysis of Mind心理分析;History of Western Philosophy西方哲学史;Priccipia Mathematica数学原理;A Free Man’s Worship短篇小说:Satan in the Suburbs撒旦在郊区;Portraits from Memory回忆中的画像

    55、William Somerset Maugham毛姆1874-1965 小说:Liza of Lambeth兰贝思的莉莎;Of Human Bondage人类枷锁;Cakes and Ale寻欢作乐;The Moon and Six Pence月亮与六便士短篇小说:Complete Short Stories短篇小说集剧本:Smith ;The Circle;Our Betters位居我们之上的人们


    56、John Masefield梅斯菲尔德1878-1967 诗:Salt-Water Ballads海上歌谣;The Everlasting Mercy永久的仁慈;The Widow in the Bye Street小街的寡妇;The Daffodil Fields水仙田;Reynard the Fox狐狸雷纳德小说:Captain Margaret;Multitude and Solitude群与独;Sard Harker萨德·哈克尔剧本:The Locked Chest

    57、Giles Lytton Strachey斯特雷奇1880-1932 传记:Emiment Victorians维多利亚时代的杰出人物;Queen Victoria评论集:Land-marks in French Literature;Books and Characters

    58、 Sean O’casey肖恩·奥凯西1880-1964 剧本:The Shadow of a Gunman枪手的影子;Juno and the Peacock裘诺与孔雀;The Plough and the Stars犁与星;The Star Turns Red;Red Roses for Me给我红玫瑰自传体小说:I Knock at the Door我敲门;Pictures in the Hallway门厅里的图画;Drums under Windows窗下鼓声;Inishfallen,Fare Thee Well英尼希法伦,再见;Rose and Crown;Sunset and Evening Star日落与金星

    59、James Joyce乔伊斯1882-1941 短篇小说:Dubiners都柏林人长篇小说:A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man青年艺术家的画像;Ulysess尤利西斯;Finnegans Wake芬尼根的觉醒

    60、Virginia Woolf沃尔芙1882-1941 长篇小说:Mrs Dalloway达洛威夫人;To the Lighthouse到灯塔去;Orlando奥兰多传;The Waves浪;Flush弗乐希;Between the Acts幕间散文集:The Common Readers;The Death of the Moth and Other Essays;A Room of One’s Own;Three Guineas三个基尼亚名文:Modern Fiction现代小说 日记:A Writer’s Diary


    61、David Herbert Lawrence劳伦斯1885-1930 The White Peacock白孔雀;Sons and Lovers儿子与情人;The Reinbow虹;Women in Love恋爱中的妇女;Lady Chatterley’s Lover查泰莱夫人的情人

    62、Katherine Mansfield曼斯菲尔德1888-1923 In a German Pension在一个德国公寓里;Blis幸福;The Garden Party园会;The Dove’s Nest鸽巢;Something Childish幼稚集

    63、Thomas Stearns Eliot艾略特1888-1965 诗集:Prufrock and Other Observation普鲁夫洛克及其他;The Waste Land荒原;The Hollow Men空虚的人们;Ash-Wednesday圣灰星期三;Four Quarters诗剧:Murder in the Cathedral大教堂里的谋杀案;The Family Reunion团圆评论集:The Sacred Wood圣林;Homage to John Dryden向约翰·德莱顿致敬;For Lancelot Andrews纪念兰斯洛特·安德鲁斯

    64、Aldous Leonard Huxley赫胥黎1894-1963 Antic Hay滑稽的环舞;Point Counter Point旋律和对立;Brave New World新奇的世界;Letters书信集;Ape and Essence猿与本质;Eyeless in Gaza加沙的盲人;After Many a Summer多少个夏天之后;The Doors of Perception感觉之门;Fairy Godmother天使教母(←Two or Three Graces雅事二三)

    65、 John Boynton Priesley普里斯特利1899- 小说:The English Comic Characters英国喜剧从物;The English Novel英国小说;The Good Companions好伙伴;Angel Pavement天使街;They Walk in the City;他们走在城市中;Let the People Sing让人们歌唱剧本:Dangerous Corner危险的转角;Time and the Conways时代与康威一家;In Inspector Calls罪恶之家;When We Are Married;The Linden Tree普提树;Summer Day’s Dream夏日梦


    66、Hugh MacDiarmid麦克迪尔米德1892-1978 Sangshaw诗歌集;A Drunk Man Looks at the Thistle醉汉看蓟;First/Second/Third Hymn to Lenin;In Memoriam James Joyce悼念乔伊斯 ;Collected Poems名诗:Why I Choose Red;Moonlight Among;The Pines;Third Hymn to Lenin

    67、Ivor Armstrong Richards理查兹1893-1979 Principles of Literary Criticism文学批评原理;Science and Poetry;Practical Criticism实用批评;Coleidge on Imagination柯尔律治论想象;The Philosophy of Rhetoric修辞哲学;Basic in Teaching :East and West教学基础(The Four Kinds of Meaning);Basic English and It’s Uses基础英语及其应用

    68、 Leshe Poles Hartley哈特利1895-1972 短篇小说集:Night Fears and Other Stories黑夜的恐惧及其他故事(The Killing Bottle致命瓶;The White Wand白色魔杖) 论文集:The Novelist’s Responsibility长篇小说:Eustace and Hilda优斯塔斯与希尔达三部曲(The Shrimp and the Anemone虾与海葵);The Go-Between信使;The Hireling佣工;Facial Justice表面正义;The Boat;A Perfect Woman一个完美的女人;The Betrayal背叛;My Sister’s Keeper妹妹的监护人

    69、Elizabeth Bowen鲍恩1899-1973 The Hotel旅舍;The House in Paris巴黎寓所;The Death of the Heart心死;The Heat of the Day炎日 短篇小说集:Look at All Those Roses(Tears ,Idle Tears)

    70、Victor Sawdon Pritchett普里彻特1900- 短篇小说:The Sailor水手;The Sense of Humour幽默感;Mr Beluncle贝伦克尔先生游记:The Spanish Temper西班牙性格 评论集:Books in General书籍泛谈自传:A Cab at the Door:A Memoir马车在家门口:回忆录; Midnight Oil挑灯夜谈


    71、 George Orwell奥威尔1903-1950 小说:Down and Out in Paris and London巴黎伦敦落魄记;Homage to Catalonia向坎塔罗尼亚致敬;Animal Farm兽园;Nineteen Eighty-Four散文集:Dickens,Dali and Others狄更斯,达里及其他;Shooting on Elephant and Other Essays猎象记及其他;The Collected Essays,Journalism and Letters of George Orwell in Four Volumes奥威尔散文,新闻写作及书信集名文:Lear Tolstoy and The Fool

    72、 Frank O’connor奥康纳1903-1966 论文集:The Lonely Voice:A Study of the Short Story寂寞之声:短篇小说研究自传:An Only Son独生子;My Father’s Son;The Backward Look:A Survey of Irish Literature爱尔兰文学回顾短篇小说集:Collection Two:Stories by Frank O’connor(Private Property私有财产)

    73、Evelyn Waugh伊夫林·沃1903-1966 长篇小说:Decline and Fall没落与堕落;Vile Bodies行尸走肉;A Handful of Dust 一撮灰尘;Black Mischief黑色的祸害;Scoop挖新闻;Put out More Flags多升几面旗;Bridgeshead Revisited重游布赖兹海德(Men at Arms行伍生涯;Officers and Gentlemen军官与绅士;Unconditional Surrender无条件投降→The Sword of Honour荣誉之剑三部曲)自传:A Little Learning一点学问(三部只成一部)短篇小说集:Mr Loveday’s Little Outing and Other Sad Stories洛弗戴先生一次短暂的外出与其他悲惨故事

    74、Christopher Isherwood 衣修午德1904- All the Conspirators所有的阴谋者;Mr Norris Changeds Traits诺里斯先生换火车;Sally Bowles萨利·鲍尔斯(选自《再见吧,柏林》);Journey to a War战地行;Prater Violet紫罗兰姑娘;The World in the Evening夜晚的世界;Down there on A Visit在那儿进行访问;A Single Man单身汉;A Meeting by the River河畔相会

    75、Graham Greene格雷厄姆·格林1904- 消遣:Stamboul Train斯坦布尔列车;A Gun for Sale一支出卖的枪;Our Man in Havana我们在哈瓦纳的人严肃:The Power and the Glory权力与荣誉;The Heart of the Matter问题的核心;The End of the Affair爱情的结局;The Quiet American;The Comedians喜剧演员;The Human Favor人的因素


    76、Charles Percy Snow斯诺1905-1980 Strangers and Brothers陌生人与兄弟们;The Light and the Dark光明与黑暗;Time of Hope希望的时刻;The Masters院长们;The New Men新人;Homecoings归家;The Conscience of the Rich富人的良心;The Affairs事件;Corridors of Power权力走廊;The Sleep of Reason理智沉眠;Last Things结局

    77、 Peter Courtney Quennell昆纳尔1905- Byron:The Year of Fame拜伦:盛名时期;Byron in Italy;Byron:A Self-Portrait拜伦:一幅自我画像;A History of English Literature;Four Portraits:Studies of the 18th Century四幅画像:关于十八世纪的研究

    78、 William Empson燕卜荪1906- 诗集:Poems;The Gathering Storm酝酿中的风暴;Collected Poems名诗:Legal Fiction;Homage to the British Museum论著:Seven Types of Ambiguity晦涩的七种类型;Some Versions of Pastoral田园诗的几种变化;The Structure of Complex Words复合词的结构

    79、Wystan Hugh Auden奥登1907-1973 诗集:Poems;The Orators雄辩家;Look,Stranger!瞧,陌生人;Spain诗剧:The Dog Beneath the Skin皮下之狗;The Ascent,F6攀登F6;On the Frontier边界上The Sea and the Mirror海与镜;The Age of Anxiety忧虑时代;The Shield of Achilles阿基琉斯的盾牌;Homage to Clio向克奥女神致敬;About the House屋子内外散文评论集:The Dyer’s Hand染工之手;Secondary World次要的世界名诗:Who’s Who;The Unknown Citizen;Their Lonely Betters

    80、William Golding戈尔丁1911- 长篇小说:Lord of the Flies蝇王;The Inheritors继承人;Pincher Martin平却·马丁;The Spire塔尖;The Pyramid金字塔


    81、 Angus Wilson威尔逊1913- 小说:The Wrong Set and Other Storie乱了套和其他短篇故事s;Anglo-Saxon Attitudes盎格鲁撒克逊态度;The Middle Age of Mrs Eliot艾略特夫人的中年;The Old Men at the Zoo; Late Call夜访;As if by Magic象是用了魔术评论:Emile Zole爱弥尔·佐拉;The World of Charles Dickens;The Strange Ride of Rudyard Kipling吉卜林的奇异旅程

    82、Dylon Thomas迪伦·托马斯1914-1953 诗:Eighteen Poems;The Map of Love爱的地图;Deaths and Entrances死亡与出场;Collected Poems自传:Portrait of the Artist as a Young Dog作为一条小狗的艺术家画像广播剧:Under the Milk Wood 名诗:Do Not Go Gentle Into That Good Night

    83、Muriel Sarah Spark斯帕克1918- The Comforter安慰者;The Prime of Miss Jean Brodie琼·布罗迪小姐的黄金时代;The Diver’s Seat司机的座位;The Abbess of Crewe克鲁女修道院院长;Loitering with Intent存心游戏;Collected Stories I短篇小说集(一)

    84、 Richard Lessing多丽丝·莱辛1919- The Grass is Singing草儿在歌唱;Children of Violence暴力和孩子们(Martha Quest玛莎·金奎特 ;A Proper Marriage正当的婚姻;A Ripple from the Storm暴风雨掀起的涟漪;Landlocked被陆地围住的;The Four-gated City四门城);The Golden Notebook金色笔记;Briefing for a Descent into Hell堕入地狱简况;The Summer before the Dark

    85、Iris Murdoch默多克1919- Under the Net在网下;The Bel钟l;A Severed Head砍掉的头;The Black Prince黑衣王子;The Sea,The Sea大海啊,大海


    86、 Philip Larkin拉金1922- 诗:The North Ship北方船;Jill;A Girl in Winter诗集:The Less Deceived受骗较少的人;The Whitsun Weddings降灵节婚礼;High Windows高窗名诗:Church Going;Reason for Attendance

    87、Kingsley Amis 金斯莱·艾米斯1922- 小说:Lucky Jim幸运的吉姆;My Enemy’s Enemy我的敌人的敌人;One Fat Englishman一个英国胖子;That Uncertain Feeling那种不安感;Take a Girl Like You爱你这样的姑娘;Ending up死

    88、 John Wain韦恩1925- 长篇小说:Hurry on Down大学后的漂泊;Living in the Present生活在当代;The Contenders竞争者;Strike the Father Dead打死父亲;A Winter in the Hills山中寒冬短篇小说集:The Life Guard救生员

    89、Brian Wilson Aldiss奥尔迪斯1925- The Brightfountain Diaries明泉日记; The Billion Year Spree:The History of Science Fiction科幻小说史;Best SF Stories of Brian W Aldiss奥尔迪斯最佳科幻故事集(Outside外界)

    90、Alan Sillitoe西利托1928- Saturday Night and Sunday Morning;The General;Key to the Door;A Tree on Fire;A Start in Life一位长跑运动员的孤独;The Loneliness of the Long-Distance Runner捡破烂人的女儿;The Ragman’s Daughter;The Windower’s Son


    91、 John Osborne奥斯本1929- Look back in Anger愤怒的回顾;Lurther;Inadmissible Evidence不能接受的证据;Time Present and Hotel in Amsterdam目前和阿姆斯特丹的旅馆

    92、 Ted Hughs特德·休斯1930- The Hawk in the Rain雨中鹰;Lupercal卢泼卡尔神(Hawk of Roosting);Scapegoats and Rabies替罪羊与狂犬病;Wodwo沃德沃怪物;Crow乌鸦Songs of Woe哀歌

    93、 Arnold Wesker韦斯克1932- 剧本:The Wesker Triology韦斯克三部曲(Chicken Soup with Barley大麦鸡汤;Roots;I’m Talking about Jerusalem0;The Four Seasons;The Friends;The Journalists新闻记者;Caritas Christi卡里塔斯·克里斯蒂

    94、Margaret Drabble德雷伯尔1939- 小说:A Summer Bird-cage夏日的鸟笼;The Garrick Year茄立克年;The Millstone磨石;The Needle’s Eye针眼 ;The Realms of Gold黄金世界;The Ice Age冰期
  • I Learn To Be Strong

    2008-05-30 23:38:08

    Words of wisdom come to my ears,
    Telling me what I know in my heart,
    But never wanted to hear.

    With the truth finally said and out in the open
    for me to plainly see,
    I wonder why I can love so deeply
    but never had that love returned back to me.

    I confessed the feelings that I held inside for so long,
    But with his soft- hearted rejection,
    I realize I have to be strong.

    With tears that want to flow from my eyes,
    I feel that my heart,
    along with my composure, slowly dies.

    While this dramatic side is showing through
    with my ability to question and reason,
    I think I may have found something in me
    that I can believe in.

    Love hurts . . .
    That's what they all say,
    But I will love again
    when all this pain and sorrow goes away.

    So I sit and think of all the things this situation has cost,
    And I realize that nothing very important has been lost.



    Instead, a learning experience has come from all this.
    I've learned that hardly anything is more important
    than my happiness.

    You’re listening to Faith Radio Online-Simply to Relax, I’m Faith. No matter who you are, where you are, at the end of today’s program, I wish every one of us is learning to be stronger.


    智慧之语穿过我的耳朵,
    告诉我一些我心中早已明白,
    却不愿去相信的一番话。

    当真言终于被道出,并展现于我面前,
    使我不得不现实地面对时,
    我问自己为什么我会爱得如此深切,
    而那爱情却从未走向我。

    我坦然告白埋藏于心中已久的那份情感,
    但在他温柔的宛然拒绝声中,
    我认识到我必须坚强。

    当眼泪欲夺眶而出时,
    我感觉到我的心
    在沉静中慢慢熄灭。

    这时,一个坚强的声音
    伴随着我理智的思考再现,
    我可能已经找到
    我对自己的信心。

    爱情痛心…
    人们都这样说,
    但是当所有这些伤与痛消却之时,
    我要再次去爱。

    于是我坐下来,思考着所有这一切能带来的影响,
    我骤然发现原来自己并没有失去任何重要的东西。

    相反,我从中收获了经验和智慧,
    我已经明白:生活中没有任何事情比自身的快乐更重要。

    你正在收听的是Faith轻松电台,我是Faith。不论你是谁,身在何处,在今天节目的最后,我希望我们每个人都在学着更坚强。

  • 巴比伦空中花园

    2008-05-12 23:45:14

    巴比伦空中花园

     

    tier on tier...On all this, the earth had been piled...and was thickly planted with trees of every kind that, by their great size and other charm, gave pleasure to the beholder...The water machines(raised) the water in great abundance from the river, although no one outside could see it. ——Diodorus Siculus

      ruits and flowers... Waterfalls... Gardens hanging from the palace terraces... Exotic animals...This is the picture of the Hanging Gardens of Babylon in most people's minds.It may be surprising to know that they might have never existed except in the minds of Greek poets and historians!

      Location

      On the east bank of the River Euphrates, about 50 km south of Baghdad, Iraq.

      History

       The Babylonian kingdom flourished under the rule of the famous King, Hammurabi[2] (1792-1750 BC[3]).It was not until[4] the reign of the Neo-Babylonian dynasty that the Mesopotamian [5] civilization reached its ultimate glory.Nebuchadnezzar II[6] (604-562 BC) is credited for building the legendary Hanging Gardens.It is said that the Gardens were built by Nebuchadnezzar to please his wife or concubinewho had been "brought up in Media[7] and had a passion for mountain surroundings".

      While the most descrīptive accounts of the Gardens come from Greek historians such as Berossus and Diodorus Siculus,Babylonian records stay silent on the matter.Tablets from the time of Nebuchadnezzar do not have a single reference to the Hanging Gardens,although descrīptions of his palace, the city of Babylon, and the walls are found.Even the historians who give detailed descrīptions of the Hanging Gardens never saw them.Modern historians argue that when Alexander[8] 's soldiers reached the fertile land of Mesopotamia and saw Babylon, they were impressed.When they later returned to their rugged homeland, they had stories to tell about the amazing gardens and palm trees at Mesopotamia...About the palace of Nebuchadnezzar... About the Tower of Babel[9] and the ziggurats.And it was the imagination of poets and ancient historians that blended all these elements together to produce one of the World Wonders.

      It wasn't until the twentieth century that some of the mysteries surrounding the Hanging Gardens were revealed.Archaeologists are still struggling to gather enough evidence before reaching the final conclusions about the location of the Gardens, their irrigation system, and their true appearance.

      注释:


      1.Babylon:古代西亚两河流域的最大城市,古巴比伦王国与新巴比伦王国的首都。位于幼发拉底河中游,距今巴格达南约89公里。“空中花园”位于新巴比伦王国的都城中。

      2.Hammurabi:汉谟拉比(公元前1792~1750)古巴比伦王国第六代国王。他在位其间,重新统一了两河流域。实行中央集权统治,兴修水利,发展经济。颁布有名的《汉谟拉比法典》。

      3.BC:BC是“公元前”、AD是“公元后”。你知道为什么有公元前和公元后之分吗?其实公元记年是由后来的一位知识渊博的大主教发明的,以基督(Christ)的出生为分界线来划分。BC 就是Before Christ;而AD来自拉丁文anno Domini(=Since Christ was born)。

      4.It was not until...:这个句子看起来挺让人迷惑,其实这是...not ...unitil...(直到……才……)的强调句型。It is ...that...是英语的情调句型。比如:It's man that counts.(出自《实用英语语法》)起作用的是人。强调...not ...unitil...时,是把not和 until引导的从句放在that 前。

      5.Mesopotamian:美索不达米亚,西亚一古地区,地处幼发拉底河和底格里斯河之间,是世界文明发祥地之一。公元前4000年苏美尔人在南美索不达尼亚建立起世界最早的文明,约公元前2340年,阿卡帝国首次兴起,此后巴比伦和亚述两帝国相继崛起。

      6.NebuPage: 1 chadnezzar II:尼布甲尼撒二世(前605~前562),新巴比伦王国国王。即位后,大举进攻腓尼基和巴勒斯坦,与埃及争夺势力范围。公元前586年攻陷耶路撒冷,灭犹太王国,俘虏大批犹太居民。前567年远征埃及,并掠夺大量财富,是为新巴比伦王国鼎盛时期。

      7.Media:米底,西亚古国,在今伊朗西部和阿塞拜疆东部地区。

      8.lexander the Great:亚历山大大帝(前356~前323)马其顿国王。前334年以无敌之师大举东进,入小亚细亚,转埃及,建立亚历山大城,挺进两河流域,入侵中亚细亚,南下印度。后因气候不适,士兵厌战而退兵巴比伦。前324年,建立了以亚历山大城为中心的东起印度河、西至尼罗河与巴尔干半岛领域的古代大帝国——亚历山大帝国。

      9.the Tower of Babel:巴别塔,据《圣经·旧约》,诺亚在巴比伦的子孙想建造一座“塔顶通天”的塔以扬名,同时反抗上帝。上帝便变乱他们原来统一的语言,使之互不相通,结果塔未能建成,而人类分散到世界各地。

      巴比伦的空中花园


      通往花园的道路象山坡一样倾斜着,建筑物的几个部分一层一层地向上交错排列着……泥土在这些上面堆积着……并且浓密地种植着各种各样的树木,它们以其巨大的身躯和其他一些魅力,令观赏者赏心悦目……抽水的机器把大量的水从河中(提升到)上面,尽管没有人从外面能看到它。 ——Diodorus Siculus

      水果与鲜花……、瀑布……、花园高悬在宫殿的阳台上……、奇异的动物……,这是大多数人想象中的巴比伦空中花园。让人吃惊的是空中花园除了在希腊的诗人和历史学家的头脑中出现过外,可能从来就没有存在过。

      位置:

      位于幼发拉底河的东岸,距伊拉克的首都巴格达南约50公里。

      历史:

      古巴比伦王国在著名的国王汉谟拉比(公元前1792~1750)的统治下曾经繁荣一时。但是直到新巴比伦王朝,美索不达米亚文明才达到了它的鼎盛时期。人们相信传说中的空中花园是由尼布甲尼撒二世(公元前604年~562年)建造的。据传,尼布甲尼撒为了取悦于其在米底亚长大并对山景怀有深厚感情的王后或者是妃子而建造了空中花园。

      虽然对花园最详尽的记述是出自Berossus 和 Diodorus Siculus等希腊历史学家笔下, 但巴比伦的历史记录却对此事只字未提。尽管在尼布甲尼撒时期存留下的各种书写板上发现了对他的宫殿、巴比伦城以及巴比伦的城墙的种种描述,但这些书写板上却没有一处提到过空中花园。甚至那些对空中花园进行过详细描述的历史学家们也从没有亲眼目睹过它们。现代历史学家争论说:当亚力山大的士兵们到达了富饶的美索不达米亚地区并看到了巴比伦时,他们深为(眼前的美景)所震撼。当他们后来回到崎岖不平的家乡时,带回了有关美索不达米亚的令人惊叹的花园和椰子树……、有关尼布甲尼撒的宫殿……以及有关巴别塔和金字型神塔的各种故事。是诗人和古代历史学家的想象力把这所有的元素混合在一起制造出了世界奇观之一。

      直到二十世纪,围绕着空中花园的一些不解之迷才被揭示出来。在得到关于花园的地理位置、灌溉系统,和真正面目的最终结论之前,考古学家们仍在努力地收集足够的证据。

    永远的维纳斯

    Venus de Milos

      The Aphrodite of Melos is made of[1] marble and represents vivdly the goddess Aphrodite. This statue had earned it's name the Venus de Milo or Venus de Melos, because in 1820, a peasant had found it on the Greek island of Melos and it was named afte
    r[2] the island where it was found.

      The statue shows Aphrodite semi-nude and with a robe wrapped around her legs. For hundreds of years the statue had remained buried in an underground cavern. On account of[3] this, the statue had suffered significant damage and it was found in two parts. Later it was replaced together and sent to France, because the Marquis de Riviere had brought the statue and had given it to Louis XVIII of France[4]. Pieces of arms and a pedestal with an inscrīption, were also found in the cave, but these were later lost and never found again.

      No one knows who created the statue of the Aphrodite of Melos. It is probably the work of the Greek artist Alexandros of Antioch. This name was inscribed on the block of stone on the pedestal that was later lost, but this is doubted from scholars because it may not have been the corrected block with the Venus de Milo, so this had erased the attribution to Alexandros. Some scholars had attributed the work of the statue to Praxiteles[5]. It is said that it was sculpted around the second century B.C.

      米洛的维纳斯

      “米洛的阿芙洛狄特”是由大理石制成的,惟妙惟肖地刻画了女神阿芙洛狄特。在1820年,一位农民在希腊的米洛岛上发现了这尊雕像,此后它就以这个岛而得名,被称为“米洛的维纳斯”。

      雕像展示了阿芙洛狄特半裸的形象,一条长袍遮住了她的双腿。数百年来,这尊雕像被深埋于一个地下洞穴中。因此,雕像严重受损,当它被发现时已经断为两截。后来它被修复在一起,并送往了法国,因为马尔凯斯·德里维尔已购买了这尊雕像,把它送给法国国王路易十八。在洞中也发现了雕像胳膊和刻有铭文的底座的残片,但是后来这些东西均被丢失,而且从此再未找到过。

      没有人知道谁创作了雕像“米洛的维纳斯”。它可能是希腊雕刻家,安屈克亚的亚历山德罗斯的作品。因为在那块后来丢失的雕像底座上刻着这个名字,但是学者们对此表示怀疑,因为这可能不是真正的“米洛的维纳斯”的底座,这就使亚历山德罗斯是否是雕像的作者产生置疑。一些学者认为这尊雕像是普拉克西特利斯的作品。它据说是作于公元前2世纪左右。

      注释:

      1. be made of:made 后接不同的介词短语,表示不同的意思。比如:a. A Stew can be made with vegetables. 这句表示蔬菜只是焖菜中的一种成分。 b. A stew can be made of vegetable. 这里表示蔬菜是焖菜中的主要成分。c. The wine is made from graps. Made from 指用……加工制成,经过加工,成品已非原来的样子。

      2. be named after:name 除了作名词,也可作动词,表示“命名;以……名字命名(after)”,例如:They named their son John. 他们给婴儿取名为约翰。She was named after her grandmother. 她是根据她祖母的名字命名的。

      3. on account of:是“因为,为……的缘故”。例如:I was absent from school on account of illness. 另外有关account的词组还有:on all accounts (无论如何,不管怎样);on no accont (不管什么理由,决不)。

      4. Louis XVIII:路易十八(1755~1824),法国国王。1795年路易十七死后,自立为路易十八。1814年4月跟随反法联军回到法国,恢复波旁王朝的统治。拿破仑百日王朝时又逃亡到国外。1815年滑铁卢战役后再次回到巴黎,重登王位。

      5. Praxiteles:普拉克西特利斯(?前四世纪中叶)雅典雕刻家。希腊最有创造性的艺术家之一。以其大理石雕像闻明。其作品将神话人物纳如平凡的日常生活而加以抒情描写,风格柔和细腻,确立了当时希腊雕塑的特征。其著名作品现仅存大理石雕像《赫尔墨斯》。

    World Cup History 世界杯历史

     

    The first World Cup

    On 26 May 1928, at a meeting in Amsterdam, the Fifa congress decided that a new tournament open to all its members should be played. A year later in Barcelona it was agreed that Uruguay, the Olympic champions and the era's footballing superpower, should celebrate 100 years of independence by hosting the first World Cup the following year.
    Only 13 nations took part in the inaugural tournament, with a majority of nine coming from South America. All games were played in three stadiums in Montevideo and, as expected, the South American countries dominated, although the European teams did not disgrace themselves.

    Some 100,000 fans packed into the Centenario Stadium for the final on 30 July to see Argentina throw away a 2-1 half-time lead as Uruguay ran out 4-2 winners.

    Jules Rimet, the Fifa president and brains behind the World Cup, presented the trophy to winning captain Jose Nazassi and football's greatest tournament was born.

    After a pre-match row over which ball to use for the final, it is believed the Argentine ball was used in one half and the Uruguayan ball in the other. Rumour has it that this is how the phrase "a game of two halves" evolved.


    World Cup history - vocabulary

    Fifa congress
    The international organisation that controls football is Fifa, which stands for Fédération Internationale de Football Association. A congress is a meeting.

    era
    This word is used to talk about a period of time in the past when something or someone is important.

    hosting
    If a country hosts the World Cup, then the competition is being played in that country.

    inaugural
    This adjective means the very first. It is mainly used when talking about special events and competitions.

    dominated
    If a team dominated it means that they were much stronger and they did much better than the others.

    did not disgrace themselves
    This expression is used to describe good performances by a team that isn't very strong. Although they are a weaker team and didn't win, they did play well.

    packed into
    This expression shows that the stadium was completely full, there was no extra space.

    brains behind
    When someone is described as the brains behind something, then it is that person's idea or plan.

    row
    Another word for an argument or disagreement.

    Rumour has it
    This expression means that what is being told is not a fact, but is what people believe to be true

     

  • 女神阿芙洛狄特

    2008-05-12 23:42:46

    女神阿芙洛狄特

    because in 1820, a peasant had found it on the Greek island of Melos and it was named after the island where it was found.
      The statue shows Aphrodite semi-nude and with a robe wrapped around her legs. For hundreds of years the statue had remained buried in an underground cavern. On account of this, the statue had suffered significant damage and it was found in two parts. Later it was replaced together and sent to France, because the Marquis de Riviere had brought the statue and had given it to Louis XVIII of France. Pieces of arms and a pedestal with an inscrīption, were also found in the cave, but these were later lost and never found again.
      No one knows who created the statue of the Aphrodite of Melos. It is probably the work of the Greek artist Alexandros of Antioch. This name was inscribed on the block of stone on the pedestal that was later lost, but this is doubted from scholars because it may not have been the corrected block with the Venus de Milo, so this had erased the attribution to Alexandros. Some scholars had attributed the work of the statue to Praxiteles. It is said that it was sculpted around the second century B.C.

    译文:
    “米洛的阿芙洛狄特”是由大理石制成的,惟妙惟肖地刻画了女神阿芙洛狄特。在1820年,一位农民在希腊的米洛岛上发现了这尊雕像,此后它就以这个岛而得名,被称为“米洛的维纳斯”。
      雕像展示了阿芙洛狄特半裸的形象,一条长袍遮住了她的双腿。数百年来,这尊雕像被深埋于一个地下洞穴中。因此,雕像严重受损,当它被发现时已经断为两截。后来它被修复在一起,并送往了法国,因为马尔凯斯?德里维尔已购买了这尊雕像,把它送给法国国王路易十八。在洞中也发现了雕像胳膊和刻有铭文的底座的残片,但是后来这些东西均被丢失,而且从此再未找到过。
      没有人知道谁创作了雕像“米洛的维纳斯”。它可能是希腊雕刻家,安屈克亚的亚历山德罗斯的作品。因为在那块后来丢失的雕像底座上刻着这个名字,但是学者们对此表示怀疑,因为这可能不是真正的“米洛的维纳斯”的底座,这就使亚历山德罗斯是否是雕像的作者产生置疑。一些学者认为这尊雕像是普拉克西特利斯的作品。它据说是作于公元前2世纪左右。

    Cambridge University 剑桥大学

    The University of Cambridge is one of the oldest universities in the world, and one of the largest in the United Kingdom. It has a world-wide reputation for outstanding academic achievement and the high quality of research undertaken in a wide range of science and arts subjects. The University pioneers work in the understanding of disease, the creation of new materials, advances in telecommunications and research into the origins of the universe. It trains doctors, vets, architects, engineers and teachers. At all levels about half of the students at Cambridge study arts and humanities subjects, many of whom have gone on to become prominent figures in the arts, print and broadcast media. The University's achievements in the sciences can be measured by the sixty or more Nobel Prizes awarded to its members over the years.

    The University is a self-governing body: the legislative authority is the Regent House, which consists of the three thousand or so members of the teaching and administrative staff of the University and Colleges who have the MA (or MA status) or a higher degree. The principal administrative body of the University is the Council, which consists mainly of members of the academic staff elected by the Regent House. The General Board of the Faculties co-ordinates the educational policy of the University and the Finance Committee of the Council supervises its financial affairs.

    As Cambridge approaches its eight hundredth anniversary in 2009, it is looking to the future. The modern University is an international centre of teaching and research in a vast range of subjects: about half of the students study science or technology. Members of the University have won over sixty Nobel Prizes.

    It continues to change in response to the challenges it faces. The Vice-Chancellor, for instance, is no longer a Head of College, but is a full-time administrative appointment. A Development Office and associated charitable foundation is successfully seeking funds around the world for new ventures. The 1990s have seen a major expansion of University accommodation for teaching and research. There are many major new buildings either underway or already completed, including the Law Faculty building and the Judge Institute of Management Studies, in March 1996 opened by HM The Queen.

    Roman Colosseum 意大利罗马大斗兽场

    The Colosseum or Flavian Amphitheater was begun by Vespasian, inaugurated by Titus in 80 A.D. and completed by Domitian. Located on marshy land between the Esquiline and Caelian Hills, it was the first permanent amphitheater to be built in Rome. Its monumental size and grandeur as well as its practical and efficient organization for producing spectacles and controlling the large crowds make it one of the great architectural monuments achieved by the ancient Romans.

      The amphitheater is a vast ellipse with tiers of seating for 50,000 spectators around a central elliptical arena. Below the wooden arena floor, there was a complex set of rooms and passageways for wild beasts and other provisions for staging the spectacles. Eighty walls radiate from the arena and support vaults for passageways, stairways and the tiers of seats. At the outer edge circumferential arcades link each level and the stairways between levels.

      The three tiers of arcades are faced by three-quarter columns and entablatures, Doric in the first story, Ionic in the second, and Corinthian in the third. Above them is an attic story with Corinthian pilasters and small square window openings in alternate bays. At the top brackets and sockets carry the masts from which the velarium, a canopy for shade, was suspended.

      The construction utilized a careful combination of types: concrete for the foundations, travertine for the piers and arcades, tufa infill between piers for the walls of the lower two levels, and brick-faced concrete used for the upper levels and for most of the vaults.

      Details

      The Colosseum was designed to hold 50,000 spectators, and it had approximately eighty entrances so crowds could arrive and leave easily and quickly.

      The plan is a vast ellipse, measuring externally 188 m x 156 m (615 ft x 510 ft), with the base of the building covering about 6 acres. Vaults span between eighty radial walls to support tiers of seating and for passageways and stairs.

      The facade of three tiers of arches and an attic story is about 48.5 m (158 ft) tall — roughly equivalent to a 12-15 story building.

    埃及出土3600年历史的法老塑像

    Buried for nearly 3,600 years, a rare statue of Egypt's King Neferhotep I has been brought to light in the ruins of Thebes by a team of French archaeologists.

      Officials said on Saturday that the statue was unusual in that the king is depicted holding hands with a double of himself, although the second part of the carving remains under the sand and its form has been determined by the use of imaging equipment.

      Archeologists unearthed the 1.8 metre (six foot) tall statue, as they were carrying out repairs around Karnak Temple in the southern city of Luxor, Egypt's antiquities chief Zahi Hawass told reporters.

      Francois Larche, one of the team that found the limestone statue of the king, whose name means "beautiful and good", said it was lying about 1.6 metres below ground near an obelisk of Queen Hatshepsut, the only woman to have reigned as a pharoah in Egypt, ruling from 1504-1484 BC.

      Karnak, now in the heart of Luxor, was built on the ruins of Thebes, the capital of ancient Egypt. The huge temple dedicated to the god Amon lies in the heart of a vast complex of religious buildings in the city, 700 kilometres (435 miles) south of Cairo.

      The statue shows the king wearing a funeral mask and royal head cloth or nemes, said Larche. The forehead bears an emblem of a cobra, which ancient Egyptians used as a symbol on the crown of the pharaohs. They believed that the cobra would spit fire at approaching enemies.

      Larche said this was only the second time such a statue had been found in Egypt. A similar one was dug up during the excavations of the hidden treasures of Karnak from 1898 to 1904.

      But it is not clear when or if the statue will be completely unearthed. It is blocked by the remnants of an ancient structure, possibly a gate.

      "In order to pull it out, a structure on top of the statue has to be dismantled and then restored," said Larche, adding that permission from the Egyptian antiquities authorities was needed before the team could go ahead with plans to raise the statue.

      "It's up to the Higher Council of Egyptian Antiquities to decide on the fate of the statue of Neferhotep I and whether it will be brought to light or left buried where it was found."

      Neferhotep was the 22nd king of the 13th Dynasty. The son of a temple priest in Abydos, he ruled Egypt from 1696-1686 BC.

      Experts believe his father's position helped him to ascend the throne, as there was no royal blood in his family.

      Neferhotep was one of the few pharaohs whose name did not invoke the sun god, Re. It is written on a number of stones, including a document on his reign found in Aswan.

    埃及出土3600年历史的法老塑像(图)

      日前,一只法国考古队在埃及南方古城卢克索出土了一尊约有3600年历史的古埃及法老耐夫侯特普一世的石灰岩塑像。

      据法新社6月4日报道,埃及最高文物委员会主席哈瓦斯当日表示,这尊塑像非同寻常,其造型为两个耐夫侯特普一世手牵手的样子;尽管耐夫侯特普一世塑像的第2部分还未出土,但通过仪器探测已经确定了它的外形。

      考古队在维修位于卢克索的卡尔纳克神庙附近地区时发现了这尊高达1.8米的耐夫侯特普一世塑像。据考古队成员拉奇介绍说,这尊塑像被埋藏在古埃及女法老哈奇苏特的方尖碑附近地区1.6米深处。塑像上,耐夫侯特普一世的前额处有一个眼镜蛇图案。古埃及认为,眼镜蛇可以在袭击敌人时喷射火焰,因此它是古埃及法老王冠的标志物。

      但何时出土塑像的第2部分还不得而知。拉奇说,塑像的剩余部分被一座据推测是一扇门的建筑物挡在了地下,“为了把它拖出来,顶部的建筑物必须先被拆除然而再复原”,因此是否将塑像第2部分挖掘出来还要由埃及最高文物委员会来决定。

      报道说,这是第2次在埃及发掘出耐夫侯特普一世塑像。1898年至1904年,考古队在挖掘埋藏在卡尔纳克神庙附近地区的宝藏时,也出土过一尊纳弗尔霍太普一世塑像。

      耐夫侯特普一世是古埃及第13王朝(公元前1783年至公元前1640年)第22位国王,其统治时期为公元前1696年至公元前1686年。这位国王的父亲是一座神庙的大祭司。在古代埃及,神庙大祭司代表国王行使宗教职责,享有很大的权力。因此,考古学家认为,耐夫侯特普一世的父亲帮助了没有王室血统的耐夫侯特普一世继承了王位。耐夫侯特普意为”美丽和善良”。报道说,耐夫侯特普一世是埃及少有的几个在名字里没有涉及到太阳神的。

  • 各国节日9

    2008-05-12 23:40:26

    Spring Festival(春节)

    The New Moon on the first day of the new year-- the full moon 15 days later

    Chinese New Year starts with the New Moon(新月)on the first day of the new year and ends on the full moon(满月)15 days later. The 15th day of the new year is called the Lantern Festival(元宵节), which is celebrated at night with lantern displays and children carrying lanterns in a parade.

    The Chinese calendar is based on a combination of lunar and solar movements. The lunar cycle(月运周期)is about 29.5 days. In order to "catch up" with the solar calendar the Chinese insert an extra month once every few years (seven years out of a 19-yearcycle). This is the same as adding an extra day on leap year (闰年). This is why, according to the solar calendar, the Chinese New Year falls on a different date each year.

    New Year's Eve and New Year's Day are celebrated as a family affair, a time of reunion and thanksgiving. The celebration was traditionally highlighted with a religious ceremony given in honor of Heaven and Earth(万物), the gods of the household and the family ancestors.

    The sacrifice to the ancestors, the most vital of all the rituals(仪式), united the living members with those who had passed away. Departed relatives are remembered with great respect because they were responsible for laying the foundations for the fortune and glory of the family.

    The presence of the ancestors is acknowledged on New Year's Eve with a dinner arranged for them at the family banquet table. The spirits of the ancestors, together with the living, celebrate the onset of the New Year as one great community. The communal feast called "surrounding the stove" or weilu. It symbolizes family unity and honors the past and present generations.

    The Origin of Chinese New Year

    The Chinese New Year is now popularly known as the Spring Festival because it starts from the Begining of Spring (the first of the twenty-four terms in coodination with the changes of Nature). Its origin is too old to be traced. Several explanations are hanging around. All agree, however, that the word Nian, which in modern Chinese solely means "year", was originally the name of a monster beast that started to prey on people the night before the beginning of a new year.

    One legend goes that the beast Nian had a very big mouth that would swallow a great many people with one bite. People were very scared. One day, an old man came to their rescue, offering to subdue Nian. To Nian he said, "I hear say that you are very capable, but can you swallow the other beasts of prey on earth instead of people who are by no means of your worthy opponents?" So, it did swallow many of the beasts of prey on earth that also harrassed people and their domestic animals from time to time.

    After that, the old man disappeared riding the beast Nian. He turned out to be an immortal god. Now that Nian is gone and other beasts of prey are also scared into forests, people begin to enjoy their peaceful life. Before the old man left, he had told people to put up red paper decorations on their windows and doors at each year's end to scare away Nian in case it sneaked back again, because red is the color the beast feared the most.

    From then on, the tradition of observing the conquest of Nian is carried on from generation to generation. The term "Guo Nian", which may mean "Survive the Nian" becomes today "Celebrate the (New) Year" as the word "guo" in Chinese having both the meaning of "pass-over" and "observe". The custom of putting up red paper and firing fire-crackers to scare away Nian should it have a chance to run loose is still around. However, people today have long forgotten why they are doing all this, except that they feel the color and the sound add to the excitement of the celebration.

    Traditional New Year Foods

    Probably more food is consumed during the New Year celebrations than any other time of the year. Vast amounts of traditional food is prepared for family and friends, as well as those close to us who have died.

    On New Year's Day, the Chinese family will eat a vegetarian dish called jai. Although the various ingredients in jai are root vegetables or fibrous vegetables, many people attribute various superstitious aspects to them.

    Other foods include a whole fish, to represent togetherness and abundance, and a chicken for prosperity. The chicken must be presented with a head, tail and feet to symbolize completeness. Noodles should be uncut, as they represent long life.

    In south China, the favorite and most typical dishes were nian gao, sweet steamed glutinous rice(糯米)pudding and zong zi (glutinous rice wrapped up in reed(芦苇)leaves), another popular delicacy.

    In the north, steamed-wheat bread (man tou) and small meat dumplings were the preferred food. The tremendous amount of food prepared at this time was meant to symbolize abundance and wealth for the household.

    The 15-Day Celebration of Chinese New Year

    The first day of the Lunar New Year is "the welcoming of the gods of the heavens and earth."Many people abstain from meat on the first day of the new year because it is believed that this will ensure long and happy lives for them.

    On the second day, the Chinese pray to their ancestors as well as to all the gods. They are extra kind to dogs and feed them well as it is believed that the second day is the birthday of all dogs.

    The third and fourth days are for the sons-in-laws to pay respect to their parents-in-law.

    The fifth day is called Po Woo. On that day people stay home to welcome the God of Wealth. No one visits families and friends on the fifth day because it will bring both parties bad luck.

    On the sixth to the 10th day, the Chinese visit their relatives and friends freely. They also visit the temples to pray for good fortune and health.

    The seventh day of the New Year is the day for farmers to display their produce. These farmers make a drink from seven types of vegetables to celebrate the occasion. The seventh day is also considered the birthday of human beings. Noodles are eaten to promote longevity and raw fish for success.

    On the eighth day the Fujian people have another family reunion dinner, and at midnight they pray to Tian Gong, the God of Heaven.

    The ninth day is to make offerings to the Jade Emperor.

    The 10th through the 12th are days that friends and relatives should be invited for dinner. After so much rich food, on the 13th day you should have simple rice congee and mustard greens (choi sum) to cleanse the system.

    The 14th day should be for preparations to celebrate the Lantern Festival which is to be held on the 15th night.

    Coming-of-Age Day (日本成人节)

    The second Monday of January is Coming-of-Age Day, a national holiday to encourage those who have newly entered adulthood to become self-reliant members of society. The holiday used to be on January 15, but in 2000 it was moved to the second Monday of the month.

    Municipal governments host special coming-of-age ceremonies for 20-year-olds, since an "adult" in Japan is legally defined as one who is 20 or over. They gain the right to vote on their twentieth birthday, and they're also allowed to smoke and drink. But along with these rights come new responsibilities as well, and so age 20 is a big turning point for the Japanese.

    Coming-of-age ceremonies have been held since time immemorial in Japan. In the past boys marked their transition to adulthood when they were around 15, and girls celebrated their coming of age when they turned 13 or so. During the Edo period(江户时代)(1603-1868), boys had their forelocks cropped off, and girls had their teeth dyed black. It wasn't until 1876 that 20 became the legal age of adulthood.

    These days, males generally wear suits to their coming-of-age ceremony, but a lot of females choose to wear traditional furisode(振袖,状似和服的长袖)--a special type of kimono(和服)for unmarried women with extra-long sleeves and elaborate designs. For unmarried women, furisode is about the most formal thing they can wear, and so many of them don it to the event marking the start of their adult life.

    The number of children in Japan is shrinking. For instance, about 1.74 million (890,000 males and 850,000 females) joined the ranks of grown-ups in 1999; this is 80,000 fewer than the year before and represents 1.4% of the total population.

    Dr. Martin Luther King Day(马丁•路德•金纪念日)

     

    It was December, 1955, and Martin Luther King, Jr. had just received his doctorate degree in theology(神学). He had moved to Montgomery( 蒙哥马利), Alabama to preach at a Baptist church. He saw there, as in many other southern states, that African-Americans had to ride in the back of public buses. Dr. King knew that this law violated the rights of every African-American. He organized and led a boycott(联合抵制)of the public buses in the city of Montgomery. Any person, black or white, who was against segregation(种族隔离)refused to use public transportation. Those people who boycotted were threatened or attacked by other people, or even arrested or jailed by the police. After 382 Days of boycotting the bus system, the Supreme Court(最高法院)declared that the Alabama state segregation law was unconstitutional.

    African-Americans were not only segregated on buses throughout the south. Equal housing was denied to them, and seating in many hotels and restaurants was refused.

    In 1957, Dr. King founded the Southern Christian Leadership Conference(南
    方基督教领导会议)and moved back to his home town of Atlanta, Georgia. This was the beginning of the Civil Rights Movement(民权运动). In the years following, he continued to organize non-violent protests against unequal treatment of African-American people. His philosophy remained peaceful, and he constantly reminded his followers that their fight would be victorious if they did not resort to bloodshed(流血). Nonetheless(尽管如此), he and his demonstrators were often threatened and attacked. Demonstrations which began peacefully often ended up in violence, and he and many others were often arrested.

    On August 23, 1963, a crowd of more than 250,000 people gathered in Washington, D.C. and marched to the Capitol Building(国会大厦)to support the passing of laws that guaranteed every American equal civil rights. Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. was at the front of the "March on Washington." On the steps of the Lincoln Memorial(林肯纪念堂)that day, Dr. King delivered a speech that was later entitled "I Have a Dream." The March was one of the largest gatherings of black and white people that the nation's capital had ever seen... and no violence occurred.

    One year later, the Civil Rights Act(民权法案)of 1964 was passed. It was not the first law of civil rights for Americans, but it was the most thorough and effective. The act guaranteed equal rights in housing, public facilities, voting and public schools. Everyone would have impartial hearings(申诉的机会)and jury trials. A civil rights commission would ensure that these laws were enforced. Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. and thousands of others now knew that they had not struggled in vain(徒劳). In the same year Dr. King won the Nobel Peace Prize for leading non-violent demonstrations.

    In 1968, Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. was assassinated while he was leading a workers' strike in Memphis, Tennessee. White people and black people who had worked so hard for peace and civil rights were shocked and angry. The world grieved the loss of this man of peace.

    The Making of a Holiday

    Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.'s death did not slow the Civil Rights Movement. Black and white people continued to fight for freedom and equality. Coretta Scott King is the widow of the civil rights leader. In 1970, she established the Martin Luther King Jr. Memorial Center in Atlanta, Georgia. This "living memorial" consists of his boyhood home and the Ebenezer Baptist Church, where King is buried.

    On Monday, January 20, 1986, in cities and towns across the country people celebrated the first official Martin Luther King Day, the only federal holiday commemorating an African-American. A ceremony which took place at an old railroad depot(铁路仓储)in Atlanta Georgia was especially emotional. Hundreds had gathered to sing and to march. Many were the same people who, in 1965, had marched for fifty miles between two cities in the state of Alabama to protest segregation and discrimination of black Americans.

    All through the 1980's, controversy surrounded the idea of a Martin Luther King Day. Congressmen and citizens had petitioned(请求)the President to make January 15, Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.'s birthday, a federal holiday. Others wanted to make the holiday on the day he died, while some people did not want to have any holiday at all.

    January 15 had been observed as a public holiday for many years in 27 states and Washington, D.C. Finally, in 1986, President Ronald Reagan declared the third Monday in January a federal legal holiday commemorating Dr. Martin Luther King's birthday.

    Schools, offices and federal agencies are closed for the holiday. On Monday there are quiet memorial services as well as elaborate ceremonies in honor of Dr. King. On the preceding Sunday, ministers of all religions give special sermons(布道)reminding everyone of Dr. King's lifelong work for peace. All weekend, popular radio stations play songs and speeches that tell the history of the Civil Rights Movement. Television channels broadcast special programs with filmed highlights of Dr. King's life and times

    Lantern Festival(元宵节)

    The 15th day of the 1st lunar month is the Chinese Lantern Festival because the first lunar month is called yuan-month and in the ancient times people called night Xiao. The 15th day is the first night to see a full moon. So the day is also called Yuan Xiao Festival in China.

    According to the Chinese tradition, at the very beginning of a new year, when there is a bright full moon hanging in the sky, there should be thousands of colorful lanterns hung out for people to appreciate. At this time, people will try to solve the puzzles on the lanterns and eat yuanxiao (glutinous rice ball) and get all their families united in the joyful atmosphere.

    History

    Until the Sui Dynasty in the sixth century, Emperor Yangdi invited envoys from other countries to China to see the colorful lighted lanterns and enjoy the gala(节日的,庆祝的)performances.

    By the beginning of the Tang Dynasty in the seventh century, the lantern displays would last three days. The emperor also lifted the curfew(宵禁令), allowing the people to enjoy the festive lanterns day and night. It is not difficult to find Chinese poems which describe this happy scene.

    In the Song Dynasty, the festival was celebrated for five days and the activities began to spread to many of the big cities in China. Colorful glass and even jade were used to make lanterns, with figures from folk tales painted on the lanterns.

    However, the largest Lantern Festival celebration took place in the early part of the 15th century. The festivities continued for ten days. Emperor Chengzu had the downtown area set aside as a center for displaying the lanterns. Even today, there is a place in Beijing called Dengshikou. In Chinese, Deng means lantern and Shi is market. The area became a market where lanterns were sold during the day. In the evening, the local people would go there to see the beautiful lighted lanterns on display.

    Today, the displaying of lanterns is still a big event on the 15th day of the first lunar month throughout China. People enjoy the brightly lit night. Chengdu in Southwest China's Sichuan Province, for example, holds a lantern fair each year in the Cultural Park. During the Lantern Festival, the park is literally an ocean of lanterns! Many new designs attract countless visitors. The most eye-catching lantern is the Dragon Pole. This is a lantern in the shape of a golden dragon, spiraling up a 27-meter -high pole, spewing fireworks from its mouth. It is quite an impressive sight!

    Origin

    There are many different beliefs about the origin of the Lantern Festival. But one thing for sure is that it had something to do with religious worship.

    One legend tells us that it was a time to worship Taiyi, the God of Heaven in ancient times. The belief was that the God of Heaven controlled the destiny of the human world. He had sixteen dragons at his beck and call and he decided when to inflict drought, storms, famine or pestilence(瘟疫)upon human beings. Beginning with Qinshihuang, the first emperor to unite the country, all subsequent emperors ordered splendid ceremonies each year. The emperor would ask Taiyi to bring favorable weather and good health to him and his people. Emperor Wudi of the Han Dynasty directed special attention to this event. In 104 BC, he proclaimed it one of the most important celebrations and the ceremony would last throughout the night.

    Another legend associates the Lantern Festival with Taoism. Tianguan is the Taoist god responsible for good fortune. His birthday falls on the 15th day of the first lunar month. It is said that Tianguan likes all types of entertainment. So followers prepare various kinds of activities during which they pray for good fortune.

    The third story about the origin of the festival is like this. Buddhism first entered China during the reign of Emperor Mingdi of the Eastern Han Dynasty. That was in the first century. However, it did not exert any great influence among the Chinese people. one day, Emperor Mingdi had a dream about a gold man in his palace. At the very moment when he was about to ask the mysterious figure who he was, the gold man suddenly rose to the sky and disappeared in the west. The next day, Emperor Mingdi sent a scholar to India on a pilgrimage(朝圣)to locate Buddhist scrīptures. After journeying thousands of miles, the scholar finally returned with the scrīptures. Emperor Mingdi ordered that a temple be built to house a statue of Buddha and serve as a repository for the scrīptures. Followers believe that the power of Buddha can dispel darkness. So Emperor Mingdi ordered his subjects to display lighted lanterns during what was to become the Lantern Festival.

    Yuanxiao

    Besides entertainment and beautiful lanterns, another important part of the Lantern Festival,or Yuanxiao Festival is eating small dumpling balls made of glutinous rice flour. We call these balls Yuanxiao or Tangyuan. Obviously, they get the name from the festival itself. It is said that the custom of eating Yuanxiao originated during the Eastern Jin Dynasty in the fourth centuty, then became popular during the Tang and Song periods.

    The fillings inside the dumplings or Yuansiao are either sweet or salty. Sweet fillings are made of sugar, Walnuts(胡桃), sesame, osmanthus flowers(桂花), rose petals, sweetened tangerine peel, bean paste, or jujube paste(枣泥). A single ingredient or any combination can be used as the filling . The salty variety is filled with minced meat, vegetables or a mixture.

    The way to make Yuanxiao also varies between northern and southern China. The usual method followed in southern provinces is to shape the dough of rice flour into balls, make a hole, insert the filling, then close the hole and smooth out the dumpling by rolling it between your hands. In North China, sweet or nonmeat stuffing is the usual ingredient. The fillings are pressed into hardened cores, dipped lightly in water and rolled in a flat basket containing dry glutinous rice flour. A layer of the flour sticks to the filling, which is then again dipped in water and rolled a second time in the rice flour. And so it goes, like rolling a snowball, until the dumpling is the desired size.

    The custom of eating Yuanxiao dumplings remains. This tradition encourages both old and new stores to promote their Yuanxiao products. They all try their best to improve the taste and quality of the dumplings to attract more customers.

    Mardi Gras(四旬斋前的狂欢节)

    Mardi Gras is a traditional holiday celebrated in many of the southern states of the USA. The most famous celebration takes place in New Orleans, Louisiana. The people there enjoy this celebration by going to parades where they catch "beads, doubloons, cups, and trinkets" that are all thrown from floats.
    They have masquerade balls and dress up in costumes for these events. King Cakes are eaten during this holiday. Mardi Gras is known as the "biggest free show on earth."

    Mardi Gras came to New Orleans through its French heritage in 1699. Early explorers celebrated this French Holiday on the banks of the Mississippi River. Throughout the years, Orleanians have added to the celebration by establishing krewes (organizations) which host parades and balls. Carnival quickly became an exciting holiday for both children and adults.

    Mardi Gras means "Fat Tuesday" and of course is celebrated on that day of the week. The date can fall between February 3 and March 9 depending on the Lunar calendar, used by the Catholic Church to determine the date of Easter. Mardi Gras is always 47 days before Easter Sunday.

    The official colors for Mardi Gras are purple, green, and gold. These colors where chosen in 1872 by the King of Carnival, Rex. He chose these colors to stand for the following:

    Purple represents justice
    green stands for faith

  • 各国节日8

    2008-05-12 23:35:31

    Constitution Day in Norway(挪威宪法日)

    After being under Danish rule for some 400 years Norway had her own revolution in 1814. A very peaceful revolution consisted of calling a constitutional convention which declared that Norway is a free kingdom.

    The constitution of the Kingdom of Norway proclaimed by the Constituent Assembly at Eidsvold on the 17th of May 1814.

    The Constitution day is still the most celebrated in the nation. But it is not celebrated - as independence day in other nations - with large military parades with arms and weapons.

    Norway's birthday is celebrated with party-clothed children and adults who walk in a parade singing.

    Songs, Banners & Parades

    Children march down the streets singing national songs. On the morning of May 17th children meet at the school early in the morning and march down to a specific place. While they march, they sing the national songs. They also make banners which are called faner in Norwegian.

    Graduating Students Celebrate

    The "Russ" are students who are just about to graduate from secondary school, so they are about 17/18 years old. The "Russ" stay up all night and wear funny hats and red and blue outfits. They drive around in a red or blue bus, which they have bought themselves. Unfortunately there's a lot of drinking during this celebration. The "Russ" also make something called "Russekort". "Russekort" are cards on which there is a picture of them, and they have written something like a joke, their biggest accomplishment or something they want to achieve. Some print thousands of cards which they pass out to children or anyone who wants them.

    Shavuot(五旬节)

    The Yom Tov begins at sundown of the 5th day of Sivan (息汪月, 即犹太教历3月,犹太国历9月,在公历5、6月间,共30天), exactly fifty days after Passover (犹太教的逾越节).
    Shavuot, the Feast of the Weeks, is the Jewish holiday celebrating the harvest season in Israel. Shavuot, which means "weeks", refers to the timing of the festival which is held exactly 7 weeks after Passover. Shavuot is known also as Yom Habikkurim, or "the Day of the First Fruits", because it is the time the farmers of Israel would bring their first harvest to Jerusalem as a token of thanksgiving.

    Shavuot also commemorates the anniversary of the giving of the Ten Commandments to Moses (十诫, 犹太教、基督教的诫条) and the Israelites at Mount Sinai (西奈山,基督教《圣经》中记载的上帝授予摩西十诫之处).

    Many of the traditions and customs of Shavuot have evolved from the legends and stories describing the experiences of the Israelites at Mount Sinai. According to tradition the Israelites actually overslept on the morning of God's visit. To compensate for this negligence, Jews hold a vigil on the eve of Shavuot. They stay awake from dusk to dawn, keeping themselves busy with the readings of the Torah (律法,圣经旧约之首五卷) and the Talmud (犹太法典). A digest of readings has evolved called Tikkun Leil Shavuot, the "Restoration of Shavuot Eve," which includes selections from the Torah, the Prophets, the Talmud, and the Zohar (《光明篇》,犹太教神秘主义对摩西五书的注疏).

    Another Shavuot custom is the eating of dairy foods. One explanation states that this comes from a passage in the Torah which reads: "And He gave us this land, a land flowing with milk and honey".

    Another explanation comes from a legend stating that before the visit from God the Jews did not keep kosher (指食物、饮食店等合礼的,符合犹太教规戒律的) or follow the Kashrut (dietary) laws. It was on this first Shavuot that they found out that their utensils were nonkosher and thus unfit for use. So finding themselves without kosher meats or utensils the Israelites were forced to eat only dairy foods. Today Jews celebrate Shavuot by eating blintzes, cheesecake, and other dairy dishes.

    Another legend tells the story of the Israelites finding Mount Sinai blooming and lush with greenery and flowers. From this legend grew the custom to decorate the Jewish home and synagogue with tree branches and flowers. Some temples decorate the Torah scrolls with wreaths of roses.

    Earth Day(世界地球日)

    Earth Day was first observed in Spring of 1970. An estimated 20 million people nationwide attended festivities out of which came the largest grassroots environmental movement in U.S. history, and the impetus for national legislation like the Clean Air and Clean Water Acts. By the twentieth anniversary of that event, April 22, 1990, more than 200 million people in 141 countries participated in Earth Day celebrations.


    Former U.S. Senator Gaylord Nelson, Earth Day's co-founder, modeled Earth Day on anti-Vietnam War demonstrations, called "teach-ins," that were common on college campuses. "At a conference in Seattle in September 1969, I announced that in the spring of 1970 there would be a nationwide grassroots demonstration on behalf of the environment," says Nelson. "The response was electric. Telegrams, letters, and telephone inquiries poured in from all across the country." As many as 20 million Americans participated in environmental rallies, demonstrations and other activities in the 1970 Earth Day.

    Since the first Earth Day, however, the environmental movement has increasingly transformed itself from a largely grassroots, citizen crusade to a professionally-organized, established special interest.

    Arbor Day(植树节)

    In many countries it has long been the tradition to hold an annual tree or forest festival. The origin of such celebrations dates back to antiquity and is in the dawn of religious feeling and awe for what trees represented. However, Arbor Day, as it is commonly known today, is of American origin and evolved from conditions peculiar to the Great Plains. It was first observed in Nebraska in 1872.


    The idea, conceived by J.S. Morton, then a member of the Nebraska State Board of Agriculture, was one of forest conservation. It was a move to promote replanting, following deforestation, and to plant up treeless areas. The idea has spread widely to other lands where it is variously celebrated as the 'Festival of Trees', 'Greening Week' of Japan, 'The New Year's Days of Trees' in Israel, 'The Tree-loving Week' of Korea, 'The Reforestation Week' of Yugoslavia, 'The Students' Afforestation Day' of Iceland and 'The National Festival of Tree Planting' in India. Arbor Day in its various forms is now recognised in more than fifty countries.

    THE IMPORTANCE OF ARBOR DAY

    On Arbor Day, particular attention is drawn to the part trees play in our lives. It's not just a day to plant trees and then forget the gesture for another twelve months. Planting a tree one day is no credit to us if, during the rest of the year, we neglect to care for it and those already growing. Our thought on Arbor Day should be an expression of enduring feeling, thought and action and not just one single, isolated flame of interest.

    In schools and other community groups, this day can be celebrated in many different ways.

    ·By planting trees or shrubs in school grounds, along neighbouring streets or in civic parks.
    ·By 'adopting' a patch of bush, with the landowner's consent, and caring for it by removal of weeds, rubbish, etc, by preparing firebreaks and by fencing and making paths to reduce trampling.
    ·By presenting a play or mime about trees in the history of Australia.
    ·By completing a project about certain types of trees (eg. jarrah, boab, karri) or a famous tree like the Gloucester Tree near Pemberton.
    ·As a class activity or common interest group go on a visit to a bush area with a spokesperson to explain the characteristics of plant species and their niche in the natural environment.
    ·Collect some tree seeds, germinate them in a classroom, and plant out the seedling.
    ·Carry out identification of trees in a specific part of your school or neighbourhood. A tree labelling ceremony could also be arranged.
    ·Compile a list of everyday objects that are made of wood or wood-based materials, and find out how the wood was processed, where it came from and whatever else you can.

    Trees and shrubs, whether native or introduced to WA, provide opportunities for the interest and study by the whole community, and when we walk around our own neighbourhood or drive through the countryside, we can appreciate the importance of such a diversity of plants to the well being of humanity.

    Easter Day(复活节)

    The meaning of many different customs observed during Easter Sunday have been buried with time. Their origins lie in pre-Christian religions and Christianity. All in some way or another are a "salute to spring," marking re-birth. The white Easter lily has come to capture the glory of the holiday. The word "Easter" is named after Eastre, the Anglo-Saxon goddess of spring. A festival was held in her honor every year at the vernal equinox (春分).

    People celebrate the holiday according to their beliefs and their religious denominations (命名). Christians commemorate Good Friday as the day that Jesus Christ died and Easter Sunday as the day that He was resurrected (复活). Protestant settlers brought the custom of a sunrise service, a religious gathering at dawn, to the United States.

    This year Easter will be celebrated on Sunday April 11, 2004. On Easter Sunday children wake up to find that the Easter Bunny has left them baskets of candy. He has also hidden the eggs that they decorated earlier that week. Children hunt for the eggs all around the house. Neighborhoods and organizations hold Easter egg hunts, and the child who finds the most eggs wins a prize.

    The Easter Bunny is a rabbit-spirit. Long ago, he was called the" Easter Hare." Hares and rabbits have frequent multiple births so they became a symbol of fertility. The custom of an Easter egg hunt began because children believed that hares laid eggs in the grass. The Romans believed that "All life comes from an egg." Christians consider eggs to be "the seed of life" and so they are symbolic of the resurrection of Jesus Christ.

    Why we dye, or color, and decorate eggs is not certain. In ancient Egypt, Greece, Rome and Persia eggs were dyed for spring festivals. In medieval Europe, beautifully decorated eggs were given as gifts.

    Egg Rolling

    In England, Germany and some other countries, children rolled eggs down hills on Easter morning, a game which has been connected to the rolling away of the rock from Jesus Christ's tomb when he was resurrected. British settlers brought this custom to the New World.

    In the United States in the early nineteenth century, Dolly Madison, the wife of the fourth American President, organized an egg roll in Washington, D.C. She had been told that Egyptian children used to roll eggs against the pyramids so she invited the children of Washington to roll hard-boiled eggs down the hilly lawn of the new Capitol building! The custom continued, except for the years during the Civil War. In 1880, the First Lady invited children to the White House for the Egg Roll because officials had complained that they were ruining the Capitol lawn. It has been held there ever since then, only canceled during times of war. The event has grown, and today Easter Monday is the only day of the year when tourists are allowed to wander over the White House lawn. The wife of the President sponsors it for the children of the entire country. The egg rolling event is open to children twelve years old and under. Adults are allowed only when accompanied by children!

    Traditionally, many celebrants (司仪神父) bought new clothes for Easter which they wore to church. After church services, everyone went for a walk around the town. This led to the American custom of Easter parades all over the country. Perhaps the most famous is along Fifth Avenue in New York City.

    Good Friday is a federal holiday in 16 states and many schools and businesses throughout the U.S. are closed on this Friday.

  • 各国节日7

    2008-05-12 23:32:52

    Deaf-Blind Awareness Week(海伦•凯勒周)

    June 27, 2000, is the 120th anniversary of the birth of Helen Keller, and each year the week in which her birthday falls is recognized as Deaf-Blind Awareness Week. In honor of Helen Keller -- and other members of the deaf-blind community, this week is dedicated to the deaf-blind.
    Every year the last week of June is devoted to one thing--recognition of the deaf-blind people in our midst. While the purpose of Deaf-Blind Awareness Week is to pay homage to Helen Keller, the deaf-blind woman who was born that week, the week focuses on increasing public awareness and understanding of deaf-blindness.

    According to the Helen Keller National Center (HKNC), about 70,000 people have hearing and vision loss. More than a decade ago, Deaf-Blind Awareness Week became an event officially recognized by the Federal government.

    The story of Helen Keller is well known. Born on June 27, 1880, the healthy infant was developing normally. But at the age of 19 months, an illness left her deaf and blind. When Helen was six, her equally famous teacher, Anne Sullivan, was able to teach her to communicate. Helen Keller went on to excel in all aspects of her life: graduating from college with honors and writing, lecturing, and inspiring people worldwide.

    The next is the proclamation of Helen Keller Deaf-Blind Awareness Week made by US president Ronald Reagan:

    Proclamation 5214 -- Helen Keller Deaf-Blind Awareness Week
    June 22, 1984
    By the President of the United States of America


    Our eyes and ears provide vital ways of interacting with the world around us. The lilt of laughter, the beat of a brass band, the smile of a friend, and the poetry of a landscape are but a few of the life blessings that our senses of sight and hearing help us to enjoy. But for some 40,000 Americans who can neither see nor hear, the world can be a prison of darkness and silence.

    Inadequate education, training, and rehabilitation for those who are deaf and blind may prevent these Americans from becoming independent and self-sufficient, thereby greatly limiting their life potential and imposing a high economic and social cost on the Nation.

    We must prevent such problems among our deaf-blind citizens by fostering their independence, creating employment opportunities, and encouraging their contributions to our society. Crucial to fulfilling this urgent national need is research on the disorders that cause deafness and blindness. Toward this end, the National Institute of Neurological and Communicative Disorders and Stroke and the National Eye Institute as well as a number of voluntary health agencies are supporting a wide range of investigative projects that one day may provide the clues to curing and preventing these devastating disorders.

    On June 27 we commemorate the 104th anniversary of the birth of Helen Keller, America's most renowned and respected deaf-blind person. Her accomplishments serve as a beacon of courage and hope for our Nation, symbolizing what deaf-blind people can achieve.

    In order to encourage public recognition of and compassion for the complex problems caused by deaf-blindness and to emphasize the potential contribution of deaf-blind persons to our Nation, the Congress, by Senate Joint Resolution 261, has authorized and requested the President to issue a proclamation designating the last week in June 1984 as ``Helen Keller Deaf-Blind Awareness Week.''

    Now, Therefore, I, Ronald Reagan, President of the United States of America, do hereby proclaim the week beginning June 24, 1984, as Helen Keller Deaf-Blind Awareness Week. I call upon all government agencies, health organizations, communications media, and people of the United States to observe this week with appropriate ceremonies and activities.

    In Witness Whereof, I have hereunto set my hand this twenty-second day of June, in the year of our Lord nineteen hundred and eighty-four, and of the Independence of the United States of America the two hundred and eighth.

    Ronald Reagan

    World Environment Day(世界环境日)

    World Environment Day was established by the United Nations General Assembly in 1972 to mark the opening of the Stockholm Conference on the Human Environment. Another resolution, adopted by the General Assembly the same day, led to the creation of UNEP(联合国环境规划署United Nations Environment Programme).
    World Environment Day can be celebrated in many ways, including street rallies, bicycles parades, green concerts, essay and poster competitions in schools, tree planting, recycling efforts, clean-up campaigns and much more.

    Heads of State, Prime Ministers and Ministers of Environment deliver statements and commit themselves to care for the Earth. More serious pledges are made which lead to the establishment of permanent governmental structures dealing with environmental management and economic planning. This observance also provides an opportunity to sign or ratify international environmental conventions.

    World Environment Day, commemorated each year on 5 June is one of the principal vehicles through which the United Nations stimulates worldwide awareness of the environment and enhances political attention and action.

    The World Environment Day theme selected for 2004 is Wanted! Seas and Oceans - Dead or Alive? The theme asks that we make a choice as to how we want to treat the Earth's seas and oceans. It also calls on each and every one of us to act. Do we want to keep seas and oceans healthy and alive or polluted and dead?

    The main international celebrations of the World Environment Day 2004 will be held in Barcelona, Spain in close collaboration with the Universal Forum of Cultures. UNEP is honoured that the City of Barcelona, the Catalan Regional Government and the Government of Spain will be hosting this important United Nations day.

    Previous Themes

    2003 Water - Two Billion People are Dying for It! 水-20亿人生命之所系! 2002 Give Earth a Chance 使地球充满生机! 2001 Connect with the World Wide Web of Life 用全球网络联接世界万物! 2000 The Environment Millennium - Time to Act 环境新纪元,时候已到,行动起来! 1999 Our Earth - Our Future - Just Save It! 拯救地球就是拯救未来! 1998 For Life on Earth - Save Our Seas 为了地球上的生命,拯救我们的海洋 1997 For Life on Earth 为了地球上的生命 1996 Our Earth, Our Habitat, Our Home 我们的地球、我们的生境、我们的家园 1995 We the Peoples: United for the Global Environment 我们世界各族人民:为保护全球环境而携手努力! 1994 One Earth One Family 我们的地球-我们的家园 1993 Poverty and the Environment - Breaking the Vicious Circle 贫困与环境-打破这一恶性循环 1992 Only One Earth, Care and Share 只有一个地球-让我们关爱和分享它 1991 Climate Change. Need for Global Partnership 需要为应付气候变化而建立全球伙伴关系 1990 Children and the Environment 儿童与环境

    Flag Day(美国国旗日)

    National flags are not merely symbols of a country. Their colors and designs convey past history and future goals. Flags have powerful connotations(内涵). They speak to the people and politicians. People of one country will burn the flag of another with whose politics they do not agree. To show their anger, students display their own nation's flags with the design altered or cut out completely. Dictators fly flags; dissidents(持不同政见者) rip them down. In every country of the world, the treatment of a flag displays an opinion or statement.

    Americans take the treatment of their flag seriously and in the 20th century this has become an important issue. Included in the code of ethics are such rules as the national flag cannot be used for advertising. It cannot cover a monument or any ceilings. It must not be folded while being displayed. No one should write on an American flag. Ships can lower their flags slightly in greeting each other, but otherwise should not be dipped for any other object or person.

    In the late 1960s, American students wore small flags sewn to the back of their jeans, symbolically insulting the American government and protesting its involvement in the Vietnam War. They burned the American flag in front of the Capitol Building(国会大厦)in Washington as a statement of protest. In the early 1990s, senators suggested an amendment to the Constitution(宪法)that would make this treatment of the flag illegal. The proposition(提议、议案)was opposed because many others felt that this change would be a violation of Americans' constitutional rights to express their opinions freely.

    For all the controversy it is interesting to point out that the United States did not even have a standardized flag until 1912! Called the "Stars and Stripes," or "Old Glory," the flag is one of the most complicated in the world. No other flag needs 64 pieces of fabric to make. The current flag has 13 red and white alternating(交互的)stripes (representing the original 13 states) and 50 stars (each star represents one of the states of the Union) on a blue background.

    The American flag has also changed designs more than any other flag in the world. The first flag, called the Grand Union, was first flown at the headquarters of the Continent Army on January 1, 1776. Betsy Ross, a seamstress(女裁缝), is said to have contributed to this design. She had an upholstery(室内装潢)business which made flags for navy ships in Pennsylvania. A legend still persists that she showed George Washington how to make a five-pointed star and suggested thirteen stars in a circle for the first flag. Her descendants claimed that she offered the design. Actually, she and George Washington never met! George Washington did design the Grand Union.

    On June 14, 1777, the Continental Congress proposed that the United States have a national flag instead of the British Union Jack. The 13 stars of the flag represented the 13 new states. There were few public ceremonies honoring the Stars and Stripes until 1877, when on, June 14, it was flown from every government building in honor of the centennial(百年纪念)of the adoption of a national flag. Schools had unfurled(展示)American flags over their doors or outside the buildings long before this; but in 1890, North Dakota and New Jersey made a law that required their schools to fly the flag daily. The first official Flag Day was observed in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania in 1893. New York also proclaimed June 14 as Flag Day 1897. Other states were slow to follow. Some people thought that the day was too close to Memorial Day and Independence Day.

    In August 1949, President Harry S. Truman proclaimed June 14 as Flag Day. Since then the President proclaims the commemoration(纪念会)yearly, and encourages all Americans in the country to display the Stars and Stripes outside their homes and businesses. Individual states determine how they will observe the day. In Pennsylvania and American Samoa it is a public holiday. Usually the flag is flown from all public buildings, speeches are made in public places and ceremonies take place in towns or cities

    Memorial Day(美国阵亡将士纪念日)

    It was 1866 and the United States was recovering from the long and bloody Civil War between the North and the South. Surviving soldiers came home, some with missing limbs, and all with stories to tell. Henry Welles, a drugstore owner in Waterloo, New York, heard the stories and had an idea. He suggested that all the shops in town close for one day to honor the soldiers who were killed in the Civil War and were buried in the Waterloo cemetery. On the morning of May 5, the townspeople placed flowers, wreaths(花环)and crosses on the graves of the Northern soldiers in the cemetery. At about the same time, Retired Major General Jonathan A. Logan planned another ceremony, this time for the soldiers who survived the war. He led the veterans through town to the cemetery to decorate their comrades' graves with flags. It was not a happy celebration, but a memorial. The townspeople called it Decoration Day.

    The two ceremonies were joined in 1868, and northern states commemorated the day on May 30. The southern states commemorated their war dead on different days. Children read poems and sang civil war songs and veterans came to school wearing their medals and uniforms to tell students about the Civil War. Then the veterans marched through their home towns followed by the townspeople to the cemetery. They decorated graves and took photographs of soldiers next to American flags. Rifles were shot in the air as a salute to the northern soldiers who had given their lives to keep the United States together.

    In 1882, the name was changed to Memorial Day and soldiers who had died in previous wars were honored as well. In the northern United States, it was designated a public holiday. In 1971, along with other holidays, President Richard Nixon declared Memorial Day a federal holiday on the last Monday in May.

    Cities all around the United States hold their own ceremonies on the last Monday in May to pay respect to the men and women who have died in wars or in the service of their country.

    Memorial Day is not limited to honor only those Americans from the armed forces. It is also a day for personal remembrance. Families and individuals honor the memories of their loved ones who have died. Church services, visits to the cemetery, flowers on graves or even silent tribute mark the day with dignity and solemnity. It is a day of reflection. However, to many Americans the day also signals the beginning of summer with a three-day weekend to spend at the beach, in the mountains or at home relaxing.

    In Waterloo, New York, the origin has not been lost and in fact the meaning has become even more special. President Lyndon Johnson proclaimed Waterloo the birthplace of Memorial Day in 1966, 100 years after the first commemoration. Every May 30, townspeople still walk to the cemeteries and hold memorial services. They decorate the graves with flags and flowers. Then they walk back to the park in the middle of town. In the middle of the park, near a monument dedicated to soldiers, sailors and marines, the Gettysburg address is read, followed by Retired Major General Logan's Order # 11 designating Decoration Day. The village choirs sing patriotic songs. In the evening, school children take part in a parade.

    Arlington National Cemetery(美国阿林顿国家公墓)in Virginia is the nation's largest national cemetery. Not only are members of the armed forces buried here; astronauts, explorers and other distinguished Americans have all been honored with a special place here. President John F. Kennedy is buried in a spot overlooking Washington, D.C..

    Here in the early hours of the Friday morning before Memorial Day, soldiers of the Third U.S. infantry walk along the rows of headstones. Each soldier stops at a headstone, reaches to a bundle of flags he is carrying, pulls one out and pushes it into the ground. These soldiers are part of a special regiment. the Old Guard. Most consider it a privilege to place flags on the more than two hundred thousand graves of soldiers who served in the wars or who died in them. "They have done their job," said one soldier, "and now it's my turn to do mine."

    It is an equal honor to guard the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier all year. There are actually four soldiers buried in this spot: the unknown soldiers of the two World Wars, the Korean conflict, and the Vietnam War. Each soldier represents all of those who gave their lives in the modern wars. Soldiers from the Army's Third Infantry guard the tomb twenty-four hours a day. Wreath-laying ceremonies take place all through the year and people from all over the world come to watch the changing of the guard. On another hill of Arlington Cemetery there is a mass grave of unidentified soldiers from the Civil War.

    On Memorial Day, the President or Vice President of the United States gives a speech and lays a wreath on the tombs. Members of the armed forces shoot a rifle salute in the air. Veterans and families come to lay their own wreaths and say prayers. There is a chance that one of the soldiers buried here is a father, son, brother or friend.

    Some southern states continue to celebrate Memorial Day on various days, i.e. June 3rd in Louisiona and Tennessee called "Confederate Memorial Day" and on May 10th in North and South Carolina.

    Shavuot(息汪月)

    Shavuot, the Feast of the Weeks, is the Jewish holiday celebrating the harvest season in Israel. Shavuot, which means "weeks", refers to the timing of the festival which is held exactly 7 weeks after Passover. Shavuot is known also as Yom Habikkurim, or "the Day of the First Fruits", because it is the time the farmers of Israel would bring their first harvest to Jerusalem as a token of thanksgiving.
    Shavuot also commemorates the anniversary of the giving of the Ten Commandments to Moses and the Israelites at Mount Sinai.

    Celebrating the Day of the First Fruits

    The farmers of Israel would begin their spring harvests with the barley crop at Passover. The harvest continued for seven weeks as the other crops and fruits began to ripen. As each fruit ripened, the first of each type would not be eaten but instead the farmer would tie a ribbon around the the branch. This ribbon signified that these fruits were Bikkurim, or the first fruits.

    At Shavuot the farmers would gather the Bikkurim into baskets and bring them to the city of Jerusalem where they would be eaten in the holy city. The farmers living close to Jerusalem would bring fresh fruits, while those who had to travel a long distance carried dried raisins and figs. This joyful occasion was celebrated with the music of fifes, timbres, and drums. As the pilgrims approached the city walls they were greeted by the inhabitants of the city. Sometimes the King himself would join the procession to the Temple Mount. The Bikkurim ritual is no longer practiced in present day Israel.

  • 各国节日6

    2008-05-12 23:29:17

    Christmas(圣诞节)

    The history of Christmas dates back over 4000 years. Many of our Christmas traditions were celebrated centuries before the Christ child was born. The 12 days of Christmas, the bright fires, the yule log, the giving of gifts, carnivals(parades) with floats, carolers who sing while going from house to house, the holiday feasts, and the church processions can all be traced back to the early Mesopotamians.


    Many of these traditions began with the Mesopotamian (美索不达米亚) celebration of New Years. The Mesopotamians believed in many gods, and as their chief god - Marduk (马杜克,古代巴比伦人的主神,原为巴比伦的太阳神). Each year as winter arrived it was believed that Marduk would do battle with the monsters of chaos. To assist Marduk in his struggle the Mesopotamians held a festival for the New Year. This was Zagmuk, the New Year's festival that lasted for 12 days.

    The Mesopotamian king would return to the temple of Marduk and swear his faithfulness to the god. The traditions called for the king to die at the end of the year and to return with Marduk to battle at his side.

    To spare their king, the Mesopotamians used the idea of a "mock" king. A criminal was chosen and dressed in royal clothes. He was given all the respect and privileges of a real king. At the end of the celebration the "mock" king was stripped of the royal clothes and slain, sparing the life of the real king.

    The Roman's celebrated their god Saturn. Their festival was called Saturnalia which began the middle of December and ended January 1st. With cries of "Jo Saturnalia!" the celebration would include masquerades (化妆舞会) in the streets, big festive meals, visiting friends and the exchange of good-luck gifts called Strenae (lucky fruits).

    "Jo Saturnalia!" was a fun and festive time for the Romans, but the Christians though it an abomination (深恶痛绝) to honor the pagan (异教) god. The early Christians wanted to keep the birthday of their Christ child a solemn and religious holiday, not one of cheer and merriment as was the pagan Saturnalia.

    But as Christianity spread they were alarmed by the continuing celebration of pagan customs and Saturnalia among their converts. At first the Church forbid this kind of celebration. But it was to no avail (徒劳). Eventually it was decided that the celebration would be tamed and made into a celebration fit for the Christian Son of God.

    Some legends claim that the Christian "Christmas" celebration was invented to compete against the pagan celebrations of December. The 25th was not only sacred to the Romans but also the Persians whose religion Mithraism (密特拉教,奉祀密特拉神的宗教,纪元后最初3世纪内传至罗马帝国) was one of Christianity's main rivals at that time. The Church eventually was successful in taking the merriment, lights, and gifts from the Saturanilia festival and bringing them to the celebration of Christmas.

    Thanksgiving Day(感恩节)

    Almost every culture in the world has held celebrations of thanks for a plentiful harvest. The American Thanksgiving holiday began as a feast of thanksgiving in the early days of the American colonies almost four hundred years ago.


    In 1620, a boat filled with more than one hundred people sailed across the Atlantic Ocean to settle in the New World(新大陆). This religious group had begun to question the beliefs of the Church of England and they wanted to separate from it. The Pilgrims settled in what is now the state of Massachusetts. Their first winter in the New World was difficult. They had arrived too late to grow many crops, and without fresh food, half the colony died from disease. The following spring the Iroquois Indians(美国纽约州东北部易洛魁族印第安人)taught them how to grow corn, a new food for the colonists. They showed them other crops to grow in the unfamiliar soil and how to hunt and fish.

    In the autumn of 1621, bountiful crops of corn, barley(大麦), beans and pumpkins were harvested. The colonists had much to be thankful for, so a feast was planned. They invited the local Indian chief and 90 Indians. The Indians brought deer to roast with the turkeys and other wild game offered by the colonists. The colonists had learned how to cook cranberries and different kinds of corn and squash dishes from the Indians. To this first Thanksgiving, the Indians had even brought popcorn.

    In following years, many of the original colonists celebrated the autumn harvest with a feast of thanks.

    After the United States became an independent country, Congress recommended one yearly day of thanksgiving for the whole nation to celebrate. George Washington suggested the date November 26 as Thanksgiving Day. Then in 1863, at the end of a long and bloody civil war, Abraham Lincoln asked all Americans to set aside the last Thursday in November as a day of thanksgiving.

    Thanksgiving falls on the fourth Thursday of November, a different date every year. The President must proclaim that date as the official celebration.

    Thanksgiving is a time for tradition and sharing. Even if they live far away, family members gather for a reunion at the house of an older relative. All give thanks together for the good things that they have.

    In this spirit of sharing, civic groups and charitable organizations offer a traditional meal to those in need, particularly the homeless. On most tables throughout the United States, foods eaten at the first thanksgiving have become traditional.

    Symbols of Thanksgiving

    Turkey, corn, pumpkins and cranberry sauce(酸果曼沙司)are symbols which represent the first Thanksgiving. Now all of these symbols are drawn on holiday decorations and greeting cards. The use of corn meant the survival of the colonies. "Indian corn" as a table or door decoration represents the harvest and the fall season.

    Sweet-sour cranberry sauce, or cranberry jelly, was on the first Thanksgiving table and is still served today. The cranberry is a small, sour berry. It grows in bogs(沼泽), or muddy areas, in Massachusetts and other New England states. The Indians used the fruit to treat infections. They used the juice to dye their rugs and blankets. They taught the colonists how to cook the berries with sweetener(甜味佐料)and water to make a sauce. The Indians called it "ibimi" which means "bitter berry." When the colonists saw it, they named it "crane-berry" because the flowers of the berry bent the stalk over, and it resembled the long-necked bird called a crane. The berries are still grown in New England.

    In 1988, a Thanksgiving ceremony of a different kind took place at the Cathedral of St. John the Divine. More than four thousand people gathered on Thanksgiving night. Among them were Native Americans representing tribes from all over the country and descendants of people whose ancestors had migrated to the New World.

    The ceremony was a public acknowledgment of the Indians' role in the first Thanksgiving 350 years ago. Until recently most schoolchildren believed that the Pilgrims cooked the entire Thanksgiving feast, and offered it to the Indians. In fact, the feast was planned to thank the Indians for teaching them how to cook those foods. Without the Indians, the first settlers would not have survived.

    World Aids Day(世界艾滋病日)

    According to UNAIDS(联合国艾滋病规划署)estimates there were 38.6 million adults and 3.2 million children living with HIV at the end of 2002, and during the year 5 million new people became infected with the virus. Around half of all people who become infected with HIV do so before they are 25 and are killed by AIDS before they are 35. 95% of the total number of people with HIV live in the developing world. But HIV still remains a threat to people of all ages and nationalities.


    Stigma and Discrimination is the theme of the 2003 World AIDS day. In many parts of the world, discrimination prevents people who are known to have HIV from securing a job or caring for their families. Discrimination can cause isolation and marginalizes(排斥)people who have HIV and AIDS. This can prevent people from being offered or seeking the treatment which could save their lives.

    In order for HIV to be effectively tackled on an international level, efforts need to be made to

    End the discrimination against people with HIV and AIDS.
    Educate people in safer sex and drug use, using appropriate media.
    Provide condoms freely to people in the developing world.
    Provide financial and medical assistance so that people with HIV and AIDS can be treated.

    Started in 1988, World AIDS Day is not just about raising money, but also about raising awareness, education and fighting prejudice. World AIDS Day is also important in reminding people that HIV has not gone away, and that there are many things still to be done.

    Themes for World Aids Day

    The theme for world AIDS day 2003 is Stigma and Discrimination. Each year there is a particular theme chosen for World AIDS Day, and for the last fourteen years the themes have been as follows:

    2004 Women and AIDS
    2003 Stigma and Discrimination
    2002 Stigma and Discrimination
    2001 I care. Do you?
    2000 AIDS : Men make a difference
    1999 Listen, Learn, Live: World AIDS Campaign with Children and Young People
    1998 Force For Change: World AIDS Campaign With Young People
    1997 Children Living in a World with AIDS
    1996 One World, One Hope
    1995 Shared Rights, Shared Responsibilities
    1994 AIDS and the Family
    1993 Time to Act
    1992 Community Commitment
    1991 Sharing the Challenge
    1990 Women & AIDS
    1989 Youth
    1988 Communication

    The Red Ribbon

    The Red Ribbon is an international symbol of AIDS awareness that is worn by people all year round and particularly around world AIDS day to demonstrate care and concern about HIV and AIDS, and to remind others of the need for their support and commitment.

    The red ribbon started as a "grass roots" effort, and as a result there is no official red ribbon, and many people make their own. To make your own ribbons, get some ordinary red ribbon, about 1.5 cms wide and cut it into strips about 15 cms long. Then fold at the top into an inverted "V" shape and put a safety pin through the centre which you use to attach the ribbon to your clothing.

    Phi Ta Khon Festival(佛诞节)

    Everyone loves a good ghost story. The gruesome, the spiritual and the supernatural arouse an instinctive curiosity in all of us. In the west, ghostly fervor reaches a peak with Halloween on October 31. In Thailand, the spirit-world comes closest to us in June with the Phi Ta Khon festival, an event filled with fun, mischief and of course, a touch of the unknown.
    The Phi Ta Khon Festival is quite unique to Thailand and unrivalled by any other ghost festival. Held in Dan Sai district of Loei province, about 450 km north of Bangkok, Phi Ta Khon is part of a Buddhist merit-making holiday known locally as 'Bun Pha Ves.' The precise origin of Phi Ta Khon is unclear. But it is believed that the roots of the festival revolve around an important tale of the Buddha's last life, before he reached nirvana.

    According to Buddhist folklore, the Buddha-to-be was born as Prince Vessandorn, a generous man who gave freely to the people. One day, he gave away a white elephant, a royal creature, revered as a symbol of rain. The townspeople were so angry for fear of drought and famine, that they banished the prince into exile.

    The prince left the village for a very long journey. Finally, the king and the people got over their anger and recalled him to the city. When he eventually returned, his people were overjoyed. They welcomed him back with a celebration so loud that even the dead were awakened from their slumbers to join in the festivities.

    Phi Ta Khon is held with the arrival of the sixth or seventh lunar month. Young male villagers prepare their ghostly attire and masks, while children roam around town playing tricks. Sheets or blankets are sewn together to look like shrouds while traditional wooden bamboo containers used to store sticky rice (huad), are creatively fashioned into bizarre hats. The huge masks are carved from the bases of coconut trees. The spirit masks are the integral part of the celebrations, which last for three consecutive days.

    The first day is marked by a masked procession, accompanied by rejoicing, music and dancing. On the second day, the villagers dance their way to the temple and fire off bamboo rockets to signal the end of the procession. Along the way, they tease onlookers as they accompany a sacred image of the Buddha through the village streets. Monks recite the story of the Buddha's last incarnation before attaining enlightenment.

    The festival organizers also hold contests for the best masks, costumes and dancers, and plaques are awarded to the winners in each age group. The most popular event is the dancing contest among those dressed up as ghosts.

    On the last day of the event, the villagers gather at the local temple, Wat Ponchai, to listen to the message of the thirteen sermons of the Lord Buddha, recited by the local monks. The ghost dancers then put away their ghostly masks and costumes for another year, return to the paddy fields and continue to earn their living with the onset of the new crop season.

    Dragon Boat Festival(端午节)

    The Dragon Boat Festival, also called the Duanwu Festival, is celebrated on the fifth day of the fifth month according to the Chinese calendar. For thousands of years, the festival has been marked by eating zong zi (glutinous rice(糯米)wrapped to form a pyramid using bamboo or reed leaves) and racing dragon boats.

    The festival is best known for its dragon-boat races, especially in the southern provinces where there are many rivers and lakes. This regatta(赛舟会)commemorates the death of Qu Yuan , an honest minister who is said to have committed suicide by drowning himself in a river.

    Qu was a minister of the State of Chu situated in present-day Hunan and Hubei provinces, during the Warring States Period (475-221BC)(战国时期). He was upright, loyal and highly esteemed for his wise counsel that brought peace and prosperity to the state. However, when a dishonest and corrupt prince vilified Qu, he was disgraced and dismissed from office. Realizing that the country was now in the hands of evil and corrupt officials, Qu grabbed a large stone and leapt into the Miluo River on the fifth day of the fifth month. Nearby fishermen rushed over to try and save him but were unable to even recover his body. Thereafter, the state declined and was eventually conquered by the State of Qin.

    The people of Chu who mourned the death of Qu threw rice into the river to feed his ghost every year on the fifth day of the fifth month. But one year, the spirit of Qu appeared and told the mourners that a huge reptile(爬行动物)in the river had stolen the rice. The spirit then advised them to wrap the rice in silk and bind it with five different-colored threads before tossing it into the river.

    During the Duanwu Festival, a glutinous rice pudding called zong zi is eaten to symbolize the rice offerings to Qu. Ingredients such as beans, lotus seeds(莲子), chestnuts(栗子), pork fat and the golden yolk of a salted duck egg are often added to the glutinous rice. The pudding is then wrapped with bamboo leaves, bound with a kind of raffia and boiled in salt water for hours.

    The dragon-boat races symbolize the many attempts to rescue and recover Qu's body. A typical dragon boat ranges from 50-100 feet in length, with a beam of about 5.5 feet, accommodating two paddlers seated side by side.

    A wooden dragon head is attached at the bow, and a dragon tail at the stern(船尾). A banner hoisted on a pole is also fastened at the stern and the hull is decorated with red, green and blue scales edged in gold. In the center of the boat is a canopied shrine behind which the drummers, gong(铜锣)beaters and cymbal(铙钹)players are seated to set the pace for the paddlers. There are also men positioned at the bow to set off firecrackers, toss rice into the water and pretend to be looking for Qu. All of the noise and pageantry creates an atmosphere of gaiety and excitement for the participants and spectators alike. The races are held among different clans, villages and organizations, and the winners are awarded medals, banners, jugs of wine and festive meals.

  • The American Way: Marriage

    2008-05-12 23:23:05

    The American Way: Marriage

    [1] "I do." To Americans those two words carry great meaning. They can even change your life. Especially if you say them at your own wedding. Making wedding vows is like signing a contract. Now Americans don't really think marriage is a business deal. But marriage is serious business.

      [2] It all begins with engagement. Traditionally, a young man asks the father of his sweetheart for permission to marry her. If the father agrees, the man later proposes to her. Often he tries to surprise her by "popping the question" in a romantic way. Sometimes the couple just decides together that the time is right to get married. The man usually gives his fiancée a diamond ring as a symbol of their engagement. They may be engaged for weeks, months or even years. As the big day approaches, bridal showers and bachelor's parties provide many useful gifts. Today many couples also receive counseling during engagement. This prepares them for the challenges of married life.

      [3] At last it's time for the wedding. Although most weddings follow long-held traditions, there's still room for American individualism. For example, the usual place for a wedding is in a church. But some people get married outdoors in a scenic spot. A few even have the ceremony while sky-diving or riding on horseback! The couple may invite hundreds of people or just a few close friends. They choose their own style of colors, decorations and music during the ceremony. But some things rarely change. The bride usually wears a beautiful, long white wedding dress. She traditionally wears "something old, something new, something borrowed and something blue". The groom wears a formal suit or tuxedo. Several close friends participate in the ceremony as attendants, including the best man and the maid of honor

      [4] As the ceremony begins, the groom and his attendants stand with the minister, facing the audience. Music signals the entrance of the bride's attendants, followed by the beautiful bride. Nervously, the young couple repeats their vows. Traditionally, they promise to love each other "for better, for worse, for richer, for poorer, in sickness and in health". But sometimes the couple has composed their own vows. They give each other a gold ring to symbolize their marriage commitment. Finally the minister announces the big moment: "I now pronounce you man and wife. You may kiss your bride!"

      [5] At the wedding reception, the bride and groom greet their guests. Then they cut the wedding cake and feed each other a bite. Guests mingle while enjoying cake, punch and other treats. Later the bride throws her bouquet of flowers to a group of single girls. Tradition says that the one who catches the bouquet will be the next to marry. During the reception, playful friends "decorate" the couple's car with tissue paper, tin cans and a "Just Married" sign. When the reception is over, the newlyweds run to their "decorated" car and speed off. Many couples take a honeymoon, a one- to two-week vacation trip, to celebrate their new marriage.

      [6] Almost every culture has rituals to signal a change in one's life. Marriage is one of the most basic life changes for people of all cultures. So it's no surprise to find many traditions about getting married... even in America. Yet each couple follows the traditions in a way that is uniquely their own.

      [1]“我愿意。”这句话对美国人来说包含深远的意义。它甚至可以改变一个人的生活,特别是如果你在自己的婚礼上说出这句话。发出结婚誓言就如同签订契约一般。虽然今天美国人并不真正认为婚姻是一宗商业交易,但婚姻确实是件严肃的事。

      [2]一切从订婚开始。在传统上,年轻男子先要请求女朋友的父亲允许自己娶她。如果女方的父亲答应,然后男方才能向女方求婚。男方时常尝试以罗曼蒂克的方式“蹦出这个问题”,想给女方一个惊喜。有时双方只是一起决定,该是结婚的时候了。男方通常会送给未婚妻一只钻石戒指作为订婚的象征。订婚期可以持续几个星期、几个月,甚至几年。当大喜的日子临近时,双方各自的好友在婚前派对上会赠送许多实用的礼物。今天,许多未婚夫妻在订婚期间还听取咨询意见,以此为应付婚姻生活的挑战作好准备。

      [3]最后就该举行婚礼了。虽然大多数的婚礼沿袭长期以来的传统,但是仍有发挥美国人的个性主义的余地。例如,通常举行婚礼的地点是在教堂,但是有些人却在户外的风景点举行婚礼,少数人甚至在跳伞或骑马时举办仪式!新人可以邀请几百个客人,也可以只邀请几个最要好的朋友。婚礼的色调风格、布置和音乐都由他们自己决定。但有些事情很少会变化。新娘通常都穿一件漂亮的长长的白色结婚礼服。按传统习惯,新娘的穿着要包括“一点旧的,一点新的,一点借来的和一点蓝色的东西”。新郎则穿着一套正式的西装或无尾晚礼服。几位亲密的朋友参与婚礼作为陪伴,包括伴郎和伴娘。

      [4]婚礼开始时,新郎和他的陪伴同牧师站在一起,面对着来宾。当音乐响起时,新娘的陪伴入场,后面就跟着美丽的新娘。一对新人紧张地跟着说出他们的誓言。按传统习惯,双方许诺要彼此相爱,“不论情况较好较坏,不论家境是富是穷,不论生病还是健康。”但有时两人也可以编一套自己的誓言。他们互赠金戒指象征婚姻的承诺。最后,牧师宣布重大时刻的到来:“我现在宣布你们成为夫妻。你可以亲吻你的新娘!”

      [5]在结婚喜宴上,新娘和新郎向宾客表示欢迎。然后他们切开结婚蛋糕并互喂对方一口。来宾们一边享受蛋糕、混合饮料和其他食物,一边相互交谈。之后,新娘将她的花束投向一群单身女孩。相传抓到花束的女孩会成为下一个结婚的人。喜宴期间,爱闹的朋友用薄纸、锡罐和写着“新婚”的标牌来“装饰”新人的小汽车。宴会结束后,新婚的小俩口就跑向他们“被装饰好的”小汽车,迅速地驶走。许多新人会去度蜜月,即一两个星期的度假旅行,以庆祝他们的新婚。

      [6]几乎每一种文化都有仪式来标志一个人生活的变化。婚姻对于各种文化的人而言都是最基本的生活变化之一。因此发现关于结婚有许多传统习俗,就不足为奇了……在美国也不例外。然而每对新人都会以自己独持的方式来继承传统。

     

  • 各国节日5

    2008-05-12 23:18:48

    International Co-operative Day(国际合作节)

    In 1921, at the International Co-operative Congress of World Co-op Leaders wanted to identify and define the growing co-operative movement's common values and ideals to help unite co-ops around the world. They decided to hold a special event to celebrate the movement's growing diversity.


    In Essen, Germany in 1922, ICA (国际合作联盟)leaders made plans for the very first international "Co-operators' Day" which was held in July 1923. Since then, on the first Saturday every July, International Co-operative Day has been celebrated. The day is a chance for co-op members and supporters to work together and promote the co-op movement's successes and ideals of international solidarity(团结), economic efficiency, equality, and world peace. To celebrate the Centennial(百年纪念)of the International Co-operative Alliance, the United Nations declared in 1995 that the first Saturday of July to be celebrated as the United Nations International Day of Co-operatives and requested all member governments to join with their co-operative movements to celebrate the day.

    Over several years various national movements were trying to register the Rainbow Flag as a trade mark, seeking ICA help in finding out arguments to prove that the flag is a distinctive(与众不同的、有特色的)symbol, reserved to the co-op movement. For us, co-operators it is, but in fact, it has never been registered as the ICA symbol.

    After the Basel Congress in 1921, which was the first congress to be held after an interruption of eight years caused by the Great World War and facing the new challenges in Europe, the ICA Executive Committee decided to devote some time to Co-operative Propaganda. The membership had grown dramatically, thus, the idea was to find a point of rally(集合、集会) which would give an identity to movements scattered(分散) from Japan to Canada.

    The political map, and most singularly(特别地,异常地)Europe's political map, changed to such an extension that it become urgent to find some common denominator(共同特性)for all the different co-operative traditions. At the same time the established co-operatives suffered attacks from fascist and communist
    parties both of which claimed "property rights" on co-op doctrine(主义、学说)and incidentally on co-op assets.

    In these troubled times, the ICA President, G.J.D.C. Goedhart, questioned himself on the causes which hinder the development of the co-op movement. He detected three: lack of information among the general public, lack of knowledge among members and finally lack of ideological commitment among managers.

    "What can be done to remedy (治疗、矫正)these evils? The best means seems to be by general propaganda which must bring to the minds and hearts of outsiders, as in a flash, vivid pictures of the Co-operative Movement, the ideals for which it stands, the real significance of its aims, and how it must necessary give us a much better human society than that in which we live."

    And already in 1922 the best support for publicity appeared to him to be a film. However, since not many societies could have supported such a financial investment, he suggested children's books, lantern slides (幻灯片)and other means of visual propaganda such as exhibitions.

    "Arrangements should also be made to hold a "Propaganda Day" or "Evening" in every country, town and village on the same day in order to draw the attention of the universe to what we are doing, and also to the whole world"

    A special "Co-operators' Day" is necessary for this purpose. You are, therefore, called upon to rally to the Standard of "Each for all, all for each" in a great International Demonstration on the First Saturday in July next, when the first organized attempt will be made to "broadcast" our rejoicings(欢庆), our ideals, our successes, and our determination to pursue them to their ultimate goal.

    Bastille Day(法国国庆日)

    Bastille Day is a National holiday in France. It is very much like Independence Day in the United States because it is a celebration of the beginning of a new form of government.
    At one time in France, kings and queens ruled. Many people were very angry with the decisions made by the kings and queens.

    The Bastille was a prison in France that the kings and queens often used to lock up the people that did not agree with their decisions. To many, it was a symbol of all the bad things done by the kings and queens. So, on July 14, 1789, a large number of French citizens gathered together and stormed the Bastille.

    Just as the people in the United States celebrate the signing of the Declaration of Independence as the beginning of the American Revolution, so the people in France celebrate the storming of the Bastille as the beginning of the French Revolution. Both Revolutions brought great changes. Kings and queens no longer rule. The people rule themselves and make their own decisions.

    The representatives of the French people, organized as a National Assembly, believing that the ignorance, neglect, or contempt of the rights of man are the sole cause of public calamities and of the corruption of governments, have determined to set forth in a solemn declaration the natural, unalienable, and sacred rights of man, in order that this declaration, being constantly before all the members of the Social body, shall remind them continually of their rights and duties; in order that the acts of the legislative power, as well as those of the executive power, may be compared at any moment with the objects and purposes of all political institutions and may thus be more respected, and, lastly, in order that the grievances of the citizens, based hereafter upon simple and incontestable principles, shall tend to the maintenance of the constitution and redound to the happiness of all. Therefore the National Assembly recognizes and proclaims, in the presence and under the auspices of the Supreme Being, the following rights of man and of the citizen:

    1 Men are born and remain free and equal in rights. Social distinctions may be founded only upon the general good.

    2 The aim of all political association is the preservation of the natural and imprescrīptible rights of man. These rights are liberty, property, security, and resistance to oppression.

    3. The principle of all sovereignty resides essentially in the nation. No body nor individual may exercise any authoritywhich does not proceed directly from the nation.

    4. Liberty consists in the freedom to do everything which injures no one else; hence the exercise of the natural rights of each man has no limits except those which assure to the other members of the society the enjoyment of the same rights. These limits can only be determined by law.

    5. Law can only prohibit such actions as are hurtful to society.Nothing may be prevented which is not forbidden by law, and no one may be forced to do anything not provided for by law.

    6. Law is the expression of the general will. Every citizen has a right to participate personally, or through his representative, in its foundation. It must be the same for all, whether it protects or punishes. All citizens, being equal in the eyes of the law, are equally eligible to all dignities and to all public positions and occupations, according to their abilities, and without distinction except that of their virtues and talents.

    7. No person shall be accused, arrested, or imprisoned except in the cases and according to the forms prescribed by law. Any one soliciting, transmitting, executing, or causing to be executed, any arbitrary order, shall be punished. But any citizen summoned or arrested in virtue of the law shall submit without delay, as resistance constitutes an offense.

    8. The law shall provide for such punishments only as are strictly and obviously necessary, and no one shall suffer punishment except it be legally inflicted in virtue of a law passed and promulgated before the commission of the offense.

    9. As all persons are held innocent until they shall have been declared guilty, if arrest shall be deemed indispensable, all harshness not essential to the securing of the prisoner's person shall be severely repressed by law.

    10. No one shall be disquieted on account of his opinions, including his religious views, provided their manifestation does not disturb the public order established by law.

    11. The free communication of ideas and opinions is one of the most precious of the rights of man. Every citizen may, accordingly, speak, write, and print with freedom, but shall be responsible for such abuses of this freedom as shall be defined by law.

    12. The security of the rights of man and of the citizen requires public military forces. These forces are, therefore, established for the good of all and not for the personal advantage of those to whom they shall be intrusted.

    13. A common contribution is essential for the maintenance of the public forces and for the cost of administration. This should be equitably distributed among all the citizens in proportion to their means.

    14. All the citizens have a right to decide, either personally or by their representatives, as to the necessity of the public contribution; to grant this freely; to know to what uses it is put; and to fix the proportion, the mode of assessment and of collection and the duration of the taxes.

    15. Society has the right to require of every public agent an account of his administration.

    16. A society in which the observance of the law is not assured, nor the separation of powers defined, has no constitution at all.

    17. Since property is an inviolable and sacred right, no one shall be deprived thereof except where public necessity, legally determined, shall clearly demand it, and then only on condition that the owner shall have been previously and equitably indemnified.

    The above document was written by The Marquis de Lafayette, with help from his friend and neighbor, American envoy to France, Thomas Jefferson. Lafayette, you may recall, had come to the Colonies at age 19, been commissioned a Major General, and was instrumental in the defeat of the British during the American Revolutionary War. He considered one special man his 'father':George Washington.

    French King Louis XVI signed this document, under duress, but never intended to support it. Indeed, the Revolution in France soon followed, leading to the tyrannical rule of Napolean Bonaparte.

    Kyoto Gion Festival(日本京都祗园祭)

    The ancient capital of Japan, Kyoto (京都) is taken back in time during the Gion festival (祗园祭) by Yasaka shrine (八阪神社, gion was the old name of this shrine.) Gion festival is one of the biggest festivals in Japan.

    This Japanese festival begins July 1st and lasts until July 31st. At this time, there are many street vendors with games and Japanese festival food. Also, many people who go to this festival wear yukata (浴衣) and geta (木屐), which are traditional Japanese outfits. It is said that the summer of Kyoto begins with the Gion Matsuri (祗园祭). It is a traditional summer festivity.

    Gion festival was started in 869 A.D when a bad plague (瘟疫) spread through Kyoto. In the first festival, young men carried numbers of wooden floats. It was a divine intervention to stop the plague. The plague soon ended, and this event became a popular festival. In the Edo Era (江户时代), the current form of the decorated floats appeared in the festival.

    There are many events held during this festival, but the highlights are Yoi-yama (宵山祭) on the 16th and Yamahoko-junko (山牟巡行) on the 17th. At Yoi-yama, people open the doors of their houses to show their treasured old folding screens. Yamahoko-junko is the parade of colorful floats (彩车) through downtown Kyoto. The floats are pulled through the streets by teams of men dressed in traditional costumes. Each of the large floats carries musicians.

    There are two kinds of floats: yama (山) and hook (牟). Yama are smaller floats (weight: 1.2 ton - 1.6 ton, height: about 6m) and carried by people on their shoulders. Hoko are giant floats (weight: 4.8 ton - 12 ton, height: about 25m) on large wooden wheels and pulled by people. There are 32 floats in the parade: 25 yama floats and 7 hoko floats.

    The floats are decorated with tapestries or fabrics from Nishijin (西阵), Kyoto. Many of them were imported from India, Belgium, Persia, Turkey and other countries in the 15th century.

    US Independence Day(美国国庆日)

    Independence Day is the national holiday of the United States of America commemorating the signing of the Declaration of Independence by the Continental Congress on July 4, 1776, in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.


    At the time of the signing the US consisted of 13 colonies under the rule of England's King George III. There was growing unrest in the colonies concerning the taxes that had to be paid to England. This was commonly referred to as "Taxation without Representation" as the colonists did not have any representation in the English Parliament and had no say in what went on. As the unrest grew in the colonies, King George sent extra troops to help control any rebellion. In 1774 the 13 colonies sent delegates to Philadelphia Pennsylvania to form the First Continental Congress. The delegates were unhappy with England, but were not yet ready to declare war.

    In April 1775 as the King's troops advanced on Concord Massachusetts Paul Revere would sound the alarm that "The British are coming, the British are coming" as he rode his horse through the late night streets. The battle of Concord and its "shot heard round the world" would mark the unofficial beginning of the colonies war for Independence.

    The following May the colonies again sent delegates to the Second Continental Congress. For almost a year the congress tried to work out its differences with England, again without formally declaring war.

    By June 1776 their efforts had become hopeless and a committee was formed to compose a formal declaration of independence. Headed by Thomas Jefferson, the committee included John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, Philip Livingston and Roger Sherman. Thomas Jefferson was chosen to write the first draft which was presented to the congress on June 28. After various changes a vote was taken late in the afternoon of July 4th. Of the 13 colonies, 9 voted in favor of the Declaration, 2 - Pennsylvania and South Carolina voted No, Delaware undecided and New York abstained.

    And although the signing of the Declaration was not completed until August, the 4th of July has been accepted as the official anniversary of United States independence. The first Independence Day celebration took place the following year - July 4 1777. By the early 1800s the traditions of parades, picnics, and fireworks were established as the way to celebrate America's birthday. And although fireworks have been banned in most places because of their danger, most towns and cities usually have big firework displays for all to see and enjoy.

    Pamplola Bull-running Fiesta(西班牙奔牛节)

    Every year from July 6 through 14, hundreds of thousands of revelers, dancing to traditional pipe bands, pack into the center of Pamplona to kick off Spain's most famous bull-running fiesta in honor of the Navarre capital's patron saint, San Fermin. Spain stages more than 3,000 fiestas a year--everything from fire walking to goat-throwing--but nine days of partying and running with the bulls at Pamplona still triumphs in terms of spectacle and recklessness.


    Soon after daybreak on July 7, brave runners (some might say stupid runners) dash ahead of fighting bulls as they run 825 meters (half a mile) between the corral where the bulls are kept to the bull ring where they will be killed by matadors later in the day. Runners aim to feel the breath of the bulls on their backs, and some even goad the animals by swatting them with rolled up newspapers--all while trying to avoid being gored or trampled.

    The San Fermin festival is reported to have began in 1591 when its purpose was purely practical, to move the bulls to the arena. The difference was that then only a handful of daring souls ran the gauntlet in front of the frenzied beasts. The tradition was immortalized in Ernest Hemingway's novel The Sun Also Rises in 1926, after which time many more foreigners began attending the festival and running with the bulls.

  • 各国节日4

    2008-05-12 23:15:51

    The Newport Folk Festival(纽波特民间艺术节)

    Since the inaugural(创立之初的, 首次的) 1958 festival, the Newport Folk Festival is renowned for presenting the very best in traditional and up-and-coming (日渐重要的) folk artists. And, of course, the stunning (出色的, 漂亮的) setting near picturesque Narragansett Bay (美国纳拉甘西特海湾) doesn't hurt in making this one of our favorite folk festivals.

    This year's Newport Folk Festival's lineup (阵容,节目) features legendary figures(传奇人物) in songwriting, new voices from both hemispheres and dynamic (有活力的) bands who will bring the crowd to their feet (吸引公众前来). Many musicians such as bluegrass master Sam Bush, acoustic blues player John Mooney and Joan Osborne are among the artists in the festival program which begins Friday, August 3 and continues through Sunday, August 5.

    If you're wondering how to sustain yourself (维持体力,支持住自己) during a full day of great folk music, here's just a sampling of what you'll discover in the festival food tents and crafts market.

    Pick Pockets Deli is one of the longest-standing(固定的, 长期存在的) food vendors, which is known for their homemade pita breads (家制皮塔饼面包) and fresh Middle eastern selections. Their falafel(沙拉三明治), hummus(鹰嘴豆沙) and tahina pockets(袋装芝麻酱) make perfect festival fare. What would summer in Rhode Island be without great seafood (海鲜)? Cove Grill of Jamestown, Rhode Island brings the taste of the bay to Fort Adams. This year the "seafood hut" will feature a menu consisting of fresh lobster rolls, stuffies, and french fries.

    As you enter the festival grounds, you can't miss the colorful crafts market that has been part of this festival for the past 16 years. Some 50 artisans and folk related exhibitors are featured each year. You'll find clothing, jewelry, pottery, stained glass, woodwork, leatherwork, musical instruments, and many other surprises. While shopping the crafts market, be sure to check out the nearby festival merchandise booth featuring official festival T-shirts, tank tops(吊带衫), sweats, and hats.

    AT&T San Jose Jazz Festival(AT&T圣•乔斯爵士音乐节)

    The Annual AT&T San Jose Jazz Festival is Silicon Valley's favorite annual event. It is the largest free jazz festival in the country! The Festival, held in August in downtown San Jose, draws over 140,000 music lovers and features a minimum of ten different jazz stages. The Festival not only enables the organization to increase the visibility of jazz, but it is also the SJJS's most lucrative fundraiser of the year. The festival greatly contributes to our year-round education & outreach initiatives.

    The Main Stage is featured in Plaza de Cesar Chavez Park, with the other stages located in easily accessible venues from San Carlos Street through to San Pedro Square. Generous sponsors of this great event enable the San Jose Jazz Society to continue to produce this free Jazz Festival. Some of our major sponsors include AT&T, Southwest Airlines, Chevron, Ford Motor Company, Forest City Commercial Management, KICU-TV, Bottomley Distributors, The Hoffman Agency, Coca-Cola and Hopkins & Carley.

    The Festival is known nationally and internationally for showcasing a rich diversity of jazz styles, including: Latin Jazz, Bebop, Rhythm & Blues, Fusion, Big Band Swing, and Modern Mainstream Jazz. With an impressive array of food and arts and crafts vendors, this event continues to be a signature event for the City of San Jose. The Jazz Festival also offers wonderful networking opportunities. The annual Mayor's Jazz Circle, which takes place in the VIP area, enables sponsors and other government and VIP donors to mingle and discuss business in a relaxed, enjoyable setting. All events associated with the 2001 Jazz Festival continued to be incident-free and popular with music lovers of all cultural backgrounds.

    In conjunction with its year-round program of Master Classes, the San Jose Jazz Society will feature several key workshops at the 12th Annual AT&T San Jose Jazz Festival. This year's clinicians include members of some of the hottest groups performing at the event. The sessions are open to both musicians and to the public. They provide musicians with a forum in which to interact with other artists and to share their talent. They also offer the public a rare opportunity to learn from some of their favorite artists. The Master Class program is the perfect synthesis of entertainment and education. With help from its friends at San Jose State University's Continuing Education Department and its Improvised Music Studies Program, the San Jose Jazz Society is able to attract some of the finest national and international artists to San Jose.

    The San Jose Jazz Society is proud of the festival's annual attendance; it is particularly proud to continue offering all festival performances free to the public.

    The Edinburgh International Festival(爱丁堡国际艺术节)

    The Edinburgh International Festival is over fifty years old and has earned its reputation as one of the world's greatest celebrations of the arts.

    The founders of the Festival believed that the Festival programmes should be of the highest possible artistic standard presented by the best artists in the world, that the Festival should enliven and enrich the cultural life of Europe, Britain and Scotland and that it should provide a period of flowering of the human spirit.

    The Edinburgh International Festival has developed significantly over the years, yet the founders' original intentions are closely reflected in the current aims and objectives.

    Each year during the summer months Edinburgh becomes the world's Festival City. It is the huge range and number of artistic events, performances and exhibitions happening throughout the city which makes Edinburgh unforgettable. It makes you feel that there is always something else happening around the corner which you are missing. There is and you are. This is inevitable, part of the joy of the Festival.

    Since the late 1940s Edinburgh has become a hotspot for artistic talent beginning with the International Festival and the Fringe. The summer programme has grown with the Edinburgh Book Festival, the largest book festival in the world, the Edinburgh Film Festival, a world renowned showcase of cinematic talent and the Military Tattoo in the magnificent backdrop of Edinburgh Castle. The Jazz festival starting in late July and the Edinburgh Mela in the last days of August bookend a phenomenal six weeks of arts and culture in the city. Hogmanay is the world's most famous celebration of New Year, the Edinburgh Science festival is a springtime journey of discovery in its own right and the Children's Festival starts the summer with playful exuberance.

    The Feast of the Assumption(圣母升天节)

     

    The Feast of the Assumption is an important day in the Catholic religion. It is the principal feast of the Blessed Virgin, the mother of Jesus Christ. This feast commemorates two events: the departure of Mary from the soul life and the assumption of her body into heaven.
    In 1950, Pope Pius (庇护,15世纪以来的历代意大利籍天主教教皇的称号) XⅡdefined that Mary "after the completion of her earthly life...was assumed body and soul into the glory of Heaven." Her body wasn't allowed to corrupt nor was it allowed to remain in a tomb.

    In the early Christian centuries relics (宗教中指圣骨,遗体) of saints and those who gave their lives for the faith were jealously guarded and highly prized. Many cities claim the mortal remains of saints, both famous and little-known. But there are no records of Mary's bodily remains being venerated (尊敬,崇拜) anywhere.

    In the Celtic lands, mid August was harvest time. The festival of Lughnasa was the harvest celebration in honor of (出于对某人的敬意) the God of the harvest Lugh who was responsible for the bounties of the harvest. There was singing and drinking and dancing and story telling in gratitude for the harvest and the promise of food to eat during the winter months. In Christian times it became the festival of Mary at Harvest Time because Mary reflected the life giving, life nurturing love of God.

    As the Feast of the Immaculate Conception (圣灵怀胎) proclaims the grace of Christ in Mary before he was born, so the Feast of the Assumption points to the fulfillment of that grace, when Mary was taken, body and soul, into heaven to share in the glory of her Son's Resurrection (耶稣复活).

    Like the mystery of her Immaculate Conception, the Assumption of Mary is significant for all humanity, since she anticipates our resurrection with Christ in glory.

    World Population Day(世界人口日)

    2004 marks the 10th anniversary of the groundbreaking International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) in Cairo, Egypt, in 1994.
    Ten years ago, on the eve of World Population Day, a new campaign was launched to raise awareness of how international family planning helps save women and children's lives, safeguard the environment, and slow population growth. 179 governments committed to it when they signed the Program of Action of ICPD, which prescribes the steps that will not only save millions of women's lives but empower(授权, 使能够)societies to achieve a better future.

    Today, there are more than 6 billion people on the planet, with half of the world's population under the age of 25-at or just reaching their childbearing(分娩)years.

    Nearly 600,000 women still die each year from pregnancy-related causes. And an estimated 90 percent of infants whose mothers die at childbirth will not survive to their first birthday.

    Wild species are becoming extinct 50 to 100 times faster than they naturally would, because of the impact of rapid population growth and increased population density in many countries.

    Though population growth is slowing worldwide, more than 90 percent of current growth occurs in the developing world where needs are great and resources are scarce. And these nations have a huge unmet need for family planning services-over 150 million married women of reproductive age in the developing world indicate that they would prefer to postpone childbearing but are not using any method of contraception.

    "Girl born today in the developing world faces better prospects than a girl who was born 10 years ago. School enrolment rates are increasing, mortality is declining and life expectancy(平均寿命) is rising, more and more women and couples are able to choose the number and spacing of their children and many countries are taking additional steps to confront HIV/AIDS. But progress is uneven, and in some cases slipping backwards. We need the strength and determination of a marathon(马拉松赛跑)runner to meet our goals during the next decade."

  • 各国节日3

    2008-05-12 23:12:17

    Labor Day(美国劳动节)

    Many immigrants settled in New York City in the nineteenth century. They found that living conditions were not as wonderful as they had dreamed. Often there were six families crowded into a house made for one family. Thousands of children had to go to work. Working conditions were even worse. Immigrant men, women and children worked in factories for ten to twelve hours a day, stopping only for a short time to eat. They came to work even if they were tired or sick because if they didn't, they might be fired. Thousands of people were waiting to take their places.
    When Peter McGuire was 17, he began an apprenticeship in a piano shop. This job was better than his others, for he was learning a trade, but he still worked long hours with low pay. At night he went to meetings and classes in economics and social issues of the day. One of the main issues of concern pertained to labor conditions. Workers were tired of long hours, low pay and uncertain jobs. They spoke of organizing themselves into a union of laborers to improve their working conditions. In the spring of 1872, Peter McGuire and 100,000 workers went on strike and marched through the streets, demanding a decrease in the long working day.

    This event convinced Peter that an organized labor movement was important for the future of workers' rights. He spent the next year speaking to crowds of workers and unemployed people, lobbying(游说) the city government for jobs and relief money. It was not an easy road for Peter McGuire. He became known as a "disturber of the public peace." The city government ignored his demands. Peter himself could not find a job in his trade. He began to travel up and down the east coast to speak to laborers about unionizing(成立工会). In 1881, he moved to St. Louis, Missouri, and began to organize carpenters there. He organized a convention of carpenters in Chicago, and it was there that a national union of carpenters was founded. He became General Secretary of the United Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners of America.

    The idea of organizing workers according to their trades spread around the country. Factory workers, dock workers and toolmakers all began to demand and get their rights to an eight-hour workday, a secure job and a future in their trades. Peter McGuire and laborers in other cities planned a holiday for workers on the first Monday in September, halfway between Independence Day and Thanksgiving Day.

    On September 5, 1882 the first Labor Day parade was held in New York City. Twenty thousand
    workers marched in a parade up Broadway. They carried banners that read "LABOR CREATES ALL WEALTH," and "EIGHT HOURS FOR WORK, EIGHT HOURS FOR REST, EIGHT HOURS FOR RECREATION!" After the parade there were picnics all around the city. Workers and celebrants ate Irish stew, homemade bread and apple pie. At night, fireworks were set off. Within the next few years, the idea spread from coast to coast, and all states celebrated Labor Day.

    In 1894, Congress voted it a federal holiday.

    Today Americans celebrate Labor Day with a little less fanfare(热闹的宣传) on the first Monday of September. Some cities have parades and community picnics. Many politicians "kick off' their political campaigns by holding rallies on the holiday. Most Americans consider Labor Day the end of the summer, and the beaches and other popular resort areas are packed with people enjoying one last three-day weekend.

    Notting Hill Carnival(诺丁山儿童节)

     

    The Notting Hill Carnival has been taking place in London, on the last weekend in August, every year since 1964.
    This great festival began initially from the energies of Black immigrants (黑人移民) from the Caribbean, particularly from Trinidad (特立尼达岛), where the Carnival tradition is very strong, and from people living locally who dreamed of (梦想着) creating a festival to bring together the people of Notting Hill, most of whom were facing racism (种族主义), lack of (缺乏) working opportunities, poor housing conditions resulting in (导致) a general suppression of good self-esteem (自尊).


    Labroke Grove is the heart of the spectacular Notting Hill Carnival, held each August Bank Holiday since 1964. This holiday always falls on the last weekend of August with Sunday and Monday being the major carnival days. There are scores of massive 'sound systems', many spectacular floats (游行彩车) and steel drum bands additionally. There are hundreds of stalls (货摊) lining the streets of the area selling all sorts of food and drink including Caribbean specialities (特产).

    Five disciplines go to make up the carnival as we know it today. Mas' from (costume, Masquerade), Steelband, Calypso (political, social and satirical commentary, set to music), Soca (the traditional music of Carnival, a fusion (结合)of Soul and Calypso) and Static Sound Systems all play their part on the two days of Carnival-on-the-Road.

    Decked (装饰) in spectacular colors, hundreds of children got their parade under way on Sunday, ahead of more than 100 floats and thousands of performers who will stage the main parade on Monday. Party-goers will eat, drink and dance their way through the terraced streets (带有台阶的街道)

    The carnival, which takes place in the streets of a west London district made famous by the movie ``Notting Hill'' starring Julia Roberts and Hugh Grant, has become one of the most celebrated symbols of multi-cultural Britain

    Bierborse(啤酒节)

     

    The Bierborse is an open-air event devoted to the art of brewing throughout the world. It is composed of two thirds beer-serving businesses and one third accompanying snack specialities. The range is supplemented by participants offering products typical of beer. That may be not only the local beer club but also the beer-mat seller or a tankard stand.
    The German Munchener Oktoberfest goes back to an event in October 1810 and then developed into an annual event organised by the breweries and entertainment businesses in Munich. The German Munchener Oktoberfest very quickly acquired the reputation of being the largest public festival on Earth and, as a result of imitators all over the globe, became a festival form welcome everywhere. In 1810, nobody could have anticipated this meteoric development.

    The Opladener Bierborse goes back to 1987, i.e. 177 years later, when Herbert Sondermann, a native of Opladen, had the idea of introducing a beer event and put this into effect in the form of a small event with seven beer stands in the pedestrian precinct in Opladen. At that time as well, nobody anticipated what a wonderful event was to develop from these beginnings. Today, Herbert Sondermann wears the Bundesverdienstkreuz (Order of Merit) of the Federal Republic of Germany for his services to Opladen; because the small beer event in the pedestrian precinct in Opladen has now become the largest open-air event in the history of the city of Leverkusen and the largest event of this kind anywhere in the world.

    In more than ten years of development work, the Bierborse has been developed, according to stringent rules and numerous selection criteria, into one of the most successful German public festivals without any blending with other types of event such as funfairs or even junk markets. This also illustrates how it differs from the Munchener Oktoberfest.

    Only the large number of beer types from all over the world allow the visitors to sample even unusual varieties. These include, for example, San Miguel from Spain, Efes from Turkey or Corona from Mexico which revive memories of past holiday trips.

    The small house breweries whose beers are not often offered on draught outside their brewing locations are also regular guests at the BIERBORSE events. The range on offer is rounded off by the well-known German brands which form the foundation of the Bierborse. This is presented in a cosy beer-garden atmosphere.

    Mid-Autumn Festival(中秋节)

    The joyous Mid-Autumn Festival was celebrated on the fifteenth day of the eighth moon, around the time of the autumn equinox(秋分). Many referred to it simply as the "Fifteenth of the Eighth Moon".

    This day was also considered as a harvest festival since fruits, vegetables and grain had been harvested by this time and food was abundant. Food offerings were placed on an altar set up in the courtyard. Apples, pears, peaches, grapes, pomegranates(石榴), melons, oranges and pomelos(柚子) might be seen. Special foods for the festival included moon cakes, cooked taro(芋头)and water caltrope(菱角), a type of water chestnut resembling black buffalo horns. Some people insisted that cooked taro be included because at the time of creation, taro was the first food discovered at night in the moonlight. Of all these foods, it could not be omitted from the Mid-Autumn Festival.

    The round moon cakes, measuring about three inches in diameter and one and a half inches in thickness, resembled Western fruitcakes in taste and consistency. These cakes were made with melon seeds(西瓜子), lotus seeds(莲籽), almonds(杏仁), minced meats, bean paste, orange peels and lard(猪油). A golden yolk(蛋黄) from a salted duck egg was placed at the center of each cake, and the golden brown crust was decorated with symbols of the festival. Traditionally, thirteen moon cakes were piled in a pyramid to symbolize the thirteen moons of a "complete year," that is, twelve moons plus one intercalary(闰月的) moon.

    The Mid-Autumn Festival is a traditional festivity for both the Han and minority nationalities. The custom of worshipping the moon can be traced back as far as the ancient Xia and Shang Dynasties (2000 B.C.-1066 B.C.). In the Zhou Dynasty(1066 B.C.-221 B.C.), people hold ceremonies to greet winter and worship the moon whenever the Mid-Autumn Festival sets in. It becomes very prevalent in the Tang Dynasty(618-907 A.D.) that people enjoy and worship the full moon. In the Southern Song Dynasty (1127-1279 A.D.), however, people send round moon cakes to their relatives as gifts in expression of their best wishes of family reunion. When it becomes dark, they look up at the full silver moon or go sightseeing on lakes to celebrate the festival. Since the Ming (1368-1644 A.D. ) and Qing Dynasties (1644-1911A.D.), the custom of Mid-Autumn Festival celebration becomes unprecedented popular. Together with the celebration there appear some special customs in different parts of the country, such as burning incense(熏香), planting Mid-Autumn trees, lighting lanterns on towers and fire dragon dances. However, the custom of playing under the moon is not so popular as it used to be nowadays, but it is not less popular to enjoy the bright silver moon. Whenever the festival sets in, people will look up at the full silver moon, drinking wine to celebrate their happy life or thinking of their relatives and friends far from home, and extending all of their best wishes to them.

    Moon Cakes

    There is this story about the moon-cake. during the Yuan dynasty (A.D. 1280-1368) China was ruled by the Mongolian people. Leaders from the preceding Sung dynasty (A.D. 960-1280) were unhappy at submitting to the foreign rule, and set how to coordinate the rebellion without being discovered. The leaders of the rebellion, knowing that the Moon Festival was drawing near, ordered the making of special cakes. Backed into each moon cake was a message with the outline of the attack. On the night of the Moon Festival, the rebels successfully attached and overthrew the government. Today, moon cakes are eaten to commemorate this legend and was called the Moon Cake.

    For generations, moon cakes have been made with sweet fillings of nuts, mashed red beans, lotus-seed paste or Chinese dates(枣子), wrapped in a pastry. Sometimes a cooked egg yolk can be found in the middle of the rich tasting dessert. People compare moon cakes to the plum pudding and fruit cakes which are served in the English holiday seasons.

    Nowadays, there are hundreds varieties of moon cakes on sale a month before the arrival of Moon Festival.

    Hungry Ghost Festival(中元节)

    Much like Western culture's Halloween, some Eastern cultures celebrate a Fall festival where they believe the gates of hell are thrown open, releasing hungry ghosts to wander the earth in search of food and taking revenge upon those who wronged them in life. This month-long festival is known as the Hungry Ghost Festival and takes place during the 7th lunar month.

    Unlike other celebrations of the dead in Eastern cultures that seek to honor dead ancestors, the Hungry Ghost Festival seeks to pacify the hungry ghosts, the ghosts of strangers and the un-cared-for dead. These are the ghosts of those who died by their own hands, by accidents, by drowning or hanging who have been denied entry into heaven. Angry because they are forced to dwell in hell without food or comfort, when released, they search for souls to take their place in misery.

    To Taoists(道教徒) and Buddhists(佛教徒), these evil spirits are not to be taken lightly. They are most active at night and can take many forms including: snakes, moths(蛾), birds, foxes, wolves, and tigers. They can even appear as beautiful men or women to seduce the living. When they possess an individual by entering the body they cause illness and mental disorders.

    Throughout this month, to keep the angry spirits amused, people stage street operas and other forms of public entertainment. In the past, people did not view the street operas as they were performed only for ghosts. Other rituals(典礼,仪式)are performed to help souls enter into heaven. Taoists do their best to avoid late nights away from these amusements and rituals to steer clear of the evil spirits. To appease these wandering spirits, Buddhists and Taoists burn bundles of joss sticks, paper hell money, food, and other offerings by the roadside. Communities along rivers or near the sea float lanterns in the shape of the lotus or carved from fruit or gourds in the water to guide them away from their homes. They follow the lanterns from the river bank or sea shore till they can no longer be seen. This is done to redeem the soul of those who died by drowning.

    The most important days of this month are the 14th and 15th, the days of the great feasts. On the 14th, a great feast would be held to honor family ancestors. Prayers and offerings would be made at family altars. On the following night, the 15th, they would feast for the hungry ghosts. Held outside under the full moon, these feasts feed the evil spirits so that they will leave the living alone and bribe(贿赂) the ancestors for luck with money and the harvest.

  • 各国节日2

    2008-05-12 23:08:10

    Sweetest Day(美国甜蜜日)

    Sweetest Day is always the third Saturday in October. This holiday is much more important in some regions than in others (Detroit, Cleveland and Buffalo being the biggest Sweetest Day cities). It is a holiday that is gaining in popularity every year throughout the country.
    Sweetest Day is celebrated on the third Saturday in October as a day to make someone happy. It is an occasion which offers all of us an opportunity to remember not only the sick, aged, and orphaned, but also friends, relatives and associates whose helpfulness and kindness we have enjoyed.

    Over 60 years ago, a Cleveland (克利夫兰--美国城市) man, believing that the city's orphans and shut-ins (卧病在床的人) too often felt forgotten and neglected, conceived the idea of showing them that they were remembered. He did this through the distribution of small gifts. With the help of his friends and neighbors, he distributed these small remembrances on a Saturday in October. During the years that followed, other Clevelanders began to participate in the celebration ceremony, which came to be called "Sweetest Day". In time, the Sweetest Day idea of spreading cheer to the underprivileged was broadened to include everyone, and became an occasion for remembering others with a kind act or a small remembrance. And soon the idea spread to other cities all over the country.

    Sweetest Day is not based on any single group's religious sentiment (感情) or on a family relationship. It is a reminder that a thoughtful word or deed enriches life and gives it meaning.

    Because for many people remembering takes the form of gift-giving, Sweetest Day offers us the opportunity to show others that we care, in a tangible (切实的) way.

    The Double Ninth Festival(重阳节)

    The "Chong Yang Festival" is celebrated on the ninth day of the ninth lunar month, and it is as such known as the Double Ninth Festival.


    Origins: The festival began as early as the Warring States Period (475 - 221 BC). According to the yin/yang dichotomy that forms a basis to the Chinese world view, yin represents the elements of darkness and yang represents life and brightness. The number nine is regarded as yang. The ninth day of the ninth month is a double yang day, hence the name "Chong Yang Festival". (Chong means "repeat" in Chinese.) The ninth month also heralds the approach of winter. It is a time when the living need warm clothing, and filial Chinese sons and daughters extended this to make the festival a time for providing winter clothes for their ancestors. The Double Ninth Festival, therefore, also became an occasion to visit the graves of dead family members. Clothes made of paper would then be burnt as offerings.

    Climbing mountains: On the Double Ninth Festival, people customarily climb mountains, appreciate chrysanthemum flowers, drink chrysanthemum wine, and eat double-ninth cakes. The Double Ninth Festival is also the "Old Men Festival". Old people are especially meant to improve their health by taking part in the activities on the day of the festival.

    Family get-togethers: The Double Ninth Festival is also a time for family get-togethers. It is an occasion to remember one's ancestors, the sacrifices they made and the hardships they underwent. Often, family outings are organised during which people search to renew their appreciation of nature and to reaffirm their love and concern for family members and close friends.

    White Cane Safety Day(国际盲人节)

    October 15, 1970 was declared International White Cane Safety Day for the first time by the President of the International Federation of the Blind. This date was adopted at the first quinquennial convention of the IFB, held in Colombo on October 4, 1969. The object of the exercise is to stimulate the general public to a better understanding of blindness and visual handicap, and to make people more aware of the white cane as a mobility aid.

    Peguilly d'Herbemont was born on 25th June 1888 into an old French noble family of the same name. In her youth she led the conventional and protected existence, devoid of great activity, of a girl from a "good family", an existence reminiscent of the life of the aristocracy before the French Revolution. She never visited a public school, but was educated by German and English governesses and convent sisters. Her movements were restricted and were mainly confined to the family positions in Paris and Belgium, but she spent most of her time at the castle of Charmois not far from Verdun.

    In the process of helping individual blind people across the road, Mademoiselle d'Herbemont was made aware by narrow scrapes which almost led to accidents, of the precarious situation of the visually impaired brought about by the steadily increasing traffic on the roads. She first spoke about measures to protect the blind against street hazards to her mother in 1930, but she was of the opinion that it was unfit for a lady of good society to create a public outcry and advised her to stick to the transcrīption of books, a popular pastime of ladies of rank at the time.

    But the idea did not leave her. The urgent wish to encourage the integration of the blind into society by providing them with a means of moving about more freely without endangering others, and at the same time attracting the attention of passers-by ready to offer assistance, caused her to take the, unusual step of writing to the editor of the Paris daily "Echo de Paris" in which she suggested issuing the blind of the Paris region with white sticks similar to those used by the traffic police.

    The editor took up the idea, published it in November 1930 and saw to it that the relevant authorities acted with atypical speed. Thus it was that the white cane received official backing, and on 7th February 1931

    Columbus Day(哥伦布纪念日)

    Today we take for granted that the world is round. In the fifteenth century, however, most people believed the world was flat. They thought that monsters or a trip over the edge of the earth waited for anybody who sailed outside the limits of known territory. People laughed at or jailed others who dared think that the world was in the shape of a globe.

    There were educated persons, however, who reasoned that the world must be round. An Italian named Christopher Columbus was bold enough to push this notion, and ask for money to explore the seas, and find what he thought would be the other hemisphere of the earth. Portugal, Italy and England refused to support such a venture.

    At that time, spice merchants were looking for an easier route to Asia. They travelled south past Africa, around the Cape of Good Hope(好望角), and continued eastward. Christopher Columbus convinced Queen Isabella of Spain that it would be easier to sail directly west and find the rich treasures of India and Asia. A new route would be found, he said, and possible new lands for Spain.

    Columbus first asked Queen Isabella for help in 1486, but it was years before she agreed provided(如果) that he conquer some of the islands and mainland for Spain. Columbus would also be given the title of "Admiral of All the Ocean Seas," and receive one-tenth of the riches that came from any of his discoveries.

    Finally, on August 3, 1492, he and ninety men set sail on the flagship(旗舰) Santa Maria. Two other ships, the Nina and the Pinta, came with him. They sailed west. Three long months went by. His men became tired and sick, and threatened to turn the ships back. Columbus encouraged them, certain that they would find the spice trail to the East. On October 11th, ten o'clock at night, Columbus saw a light. The Pinta kept sailing, and reported that the light was, in fact, land. The next morning at dawn they landed.

    Christopher Columbus and his crew had expected to see people native to India, or be taken to see the great leader Khan(可汗). They called the first people they saw "Indians." They had gone ashore in their best clothes, knelt and praised God for arriving safely. From the "Indians" they learned that the island was called Guanahani. Columbus christened(命名) it San Salvador(圣萨尔瓦多) and claimed it immediately for Spain. When they landed on the island that is now Cuba, they thought they were in Japan. After three subsequent voyages, Columbus was still unenlightened. He died a rich and famous man, but he never knew that he discovered lands that few people had imagined were there.

    Columbus had stopped at what are now the Caribbean Islands(加勒比海群岛), either Watling Island, Grand Turk Island, or Samana Cay. In 1926, Watling Island was renamed San Salvador and acknowledged as the first land in the New World. Recently, however, some people have begun to dispute the claim. Three men from Miami, Florida have started a movement to recognize Conception Island as the one that Columbus and his men first sighted and landed on. The controversy has not yet been resolve.

    Few celebrations marked the discovery until hundreds of years later. The continent was not even named after Columbus, but an Italian explorer named Amerigo Vespucci. In 1792, a ceremony was held in New York honoring Columbus, and a monument was dedicated to him. Soon after that, the city of Washington was officially named the District of Columbia and became the capital of the United States. In 1892, a statue of Columbus was raised at the beginning of Columbus Avenue in New York City. At the Columbian Exposition held in Chicago that year, replicas(复制品) of Columbus's three ships were displayed.

    Americans might not have a Columbus Day if Christopher Columbus had not been born in Italy. Out of pride for their native son, the Italian population of New York City organised the first celebration of the discovery of America on October 12, 1866. The next year, more Italian organisations in other cities held banquets, parades and dances on that date. In 1869, when Italians of San Francisco celebrated October 12, they called it Columbus Day.

    In 1905, Colorado became the first state to observe a Columbus Day. Over the next few decades other states followed. In 1937, then President Franklin Roosevelt proclaimed every October 12 as Columbus Day. Since 1971, it has been celebrated on the second Monday in October.

    Although it is generally accepted that Christopher Columbus was the first European to have discovered the New World of the Americas, there is still some controversy over this claim. Some researchers and proponents of other explorers attribute the first sightings to the early Scandinavian Vikings(北欧海盗) or the voyages of Irish missionaries(传教士) which predate(早于) the Columbus visit in 1492. The controversy may never be fully resolved to everyone's satisfaction, but 1992 marked the 500th anniversary of the Columbus discovery.

    Chusok(韩国中秋节)

    Chusok ("fall evening") is a Korean "Harvest Moon" (Han-gawi) festival set on the 15th day of the eighth lunar moon. Chusok (韩国中秋节), also known as the Korean Thanksgiving or Mid-Autumn Festival, is one of the most celebrated Korean holidays. It occurs during the harvest season. Thus, Korean families take this time to thank their ancestors for providing them with rice and fruits.
    The celebration starts on the night before Chusok and ends on the day after the holiday. Thus, many Korean families take three days off from work to get together with family and friends.

    The celebration starts with a family get-together at which rice cakes called "Songphyun" (蒸糕) are served. These special rice cakes are made of rice, beans, sesame seeds, and chestnuts. Then the family pays respect to ancestors by visiting their tombs and offering them rice and fruits. The Koreans visit the graves of their ancestors to bow and clean the area for the coming winter. In the evening, children wear their favorite hanbok (traditional Korean clothing) and dance under the bright moon in a large circle. They play games and sing songs. Like the American Thanksgiving, Chusok is the time to celebrate the family and give thanks for their blessings.

    Community activities include masked dance, Kanggangsuwollae, an ancient circle dance, tug-of-wars and the tortoise game, kobuk-nori (乌龟游戏), in which two men dress as a tortoise and tour the villagedancing and performing for food and drink. Most of all, Ch'usok is a time to give thanks for the autumn harvest and reaffirm familial and community ties.

    Chusok ("fall evening") is a Korean "Harvest Moon" (Han-gawi) festival set on the 15th day of the eighth lunar moon. Chusok (韩国中秋节), also known as the Korean Thanksgiving or Mid-Autumn Festival, is one of the most celebrated Korean holidays. It occurs during the harvest season. Thus, Korean families take this time to thank their ancestors for providing them with rice and fruits.
    The celebration starts on the night before Chusok and ends on the day after the holiday. Thus, many Korean families take three days off from work to get together with family and friends.

    The celebration starts with a family get-together at which rice cakes called "Songphyun" (蒸糕) are served. These special rice cakes are made of rice, beans, sesame seeds, and chestnuts. Then the family pays respect to ancestors by visiting their tombs and offering them rice and fruits. The Koreans visit the graves of their ancestors to bow and clean the area for the coming winter. In the evening, children wear their favorite hanbok (traditional Korean clothing) and dance under the bright moon in a large circle. They play games and sing songs. Like the American Thanksgiving, Chusok is the time to celebrate the family and give thanks for their blessings.

    Community activities include masked dance, Kanggangsuwollae, an ancient circle dance, tug-of-wars and the tortoise game, kobuk-nori (乌龟游戏), in which two men dress as a tortoise and tour the villagedancing and performing for food and drink. Most of all, Ch'usok is a time to give thanks for the autumn harvest and reaffirm familial and community ties.

    The Munich Oktoberfest(慕尼黑啤酒节)

    The Munich Oktoberfest is the biggest public festival in the world and will be held in 2003 for the 170th time. Each year, the Oktoberfest is attended by around 6 million visitors, who drink around 5 million liters of beer and consume over 200,000 pairs of pork sausages - mostly in the "beer tents" put up by the traditional Munich breweries(酿酒厂).
    At the foot of the Bavaria statue, the huge Oktoberfest grounds also provide carousels(喧闹的酒会), roller coasters(过山车) and all the spectacular fun of the fair for the enjoyment and excitement of visitors of all ages.

    The festivities are accompanied by a program of events, including the Grand Entry of the Oktoberfest Landlords and Breweries and the Costume and Riflemen's Procession.

    The History of the Oktoberfest dates back to the 19th century. Crown Prince Ludwig, later to become King Ludwig I, was married to Princess Therese of Saxony-Hildburghausen on 12th October 1810. The citizens of Munich were invited to attend the festivities held on the fields in front of the city gates to celebrate the happy royal event.

    Horse races in the presence of the Royal Family marked the close of the event that was celebrated as a festival for the whole of Bavaria. The decision to repeat the horse races in the subsequent year gave rise to the tradition of the Oktoberfest.

    In 1811 an added feature to the horse races was the first Agricultural Show, designed to boost Bavarian agriculture

    The horse races, which were the oldest and the most popular event of the festival are no longer held today. But the Agricultural Show is still held every three years during the Oktoberfest on the southern part of the festival grounds.

    In the first few decades the choice of amusements was sparse. The first carousel and two swings were set up in 1818. Visitors were able to quench their thirst at small beer stands which grew rapidly in number. In 1896 the beer stands were replaced by the first beer tents and halls set up by enterprising landlords with the backing of the breweries.

    The remainder of the festival site was taken up by a fun-fair(游乐场). The range of carousels etc. on offer was already increasing rapidly in the 1870s as the fairground(露天市场)trade continued to grow and develop in Germany.

    Today, the Oktoberfest is the largest festival in the world, with an international flavor characteristic of the 21th century: some 6 million visitors from all around the world converge on the Oktoberfest each year.

    Accordion & Fiddle Festival(苏格兰风琴提琴节)

    The annual Accordion & Fiddle Festival mainly concentrates on music provided by Shetland's two most popular instruments - the accordion and the fiddle.
    The festival, currently in its 12th year, takes place over a hectic four-day period in mid-October. As with Shetland Folk Festival, musicians from all over the world perform at the event, although emphasis is largely focused on Scottish Dance music. Local musicians feature prominently in the event line-up. Sessions are an integral part and important factor of the festival, an element which allows for much musical interchange and therefore musician development, especially among the younger generations.

    Adopting the tried and trusted format of widespread community involvement, the event incorporates most areas of Shetland. It culminates in one of the biggest traditional dances to take place anywhere in the UK. Around a dozen different dance bands take it in turn to perform to 1,500 enthusiasts in the local sports centre in what amounts to a highly enjoyable "traditional rave".

    The festival is a must for anyone who enjoys the sound of traditional music and has the stamina to absorb it for four hectic days.

    Fae Shetland Tae Shetland

    Fae Shetland Tae Shetland translates as From Shetland To hetland and the name really says it all.

    An annual one-night event, the concert hosts top local musicians who perform free of charge to raise money. During the 10 years or so of its existence, the concert has successfully raised thousands of pounds for local charities, organizations and needy individuals.


     

  • 各国的节日1

    2008-05-12 23:03:01

    各国的节日

    阳历节日:
    1月1日元旦(New Year's Day)
    2月2日世界湿地日(World Wetlands Day)
    2月14日情人节(Valentine's Day)
    3月3日全国爱耳日
    3月5日青年志愿者服务日
    3月8日国际妇女节(International Women' Day)
    3月9日保护母亲河日
    3月12日中国植树节(China Arbor Day)
    3月14日白色情人节(White Day)
    3月14日国际警察日(International Policemen' Day)
    3月15日世界消费者权益日(World Consumer Right Day)
    3月21日世界森林日(World Forest Day)
    3月21日世界睡眠日(World Sleep Day)
    3月22日世界水日(World Water Day)
    3月23日世界气象日(World Meteorological Day)
    3月24日世界防治结核病日(World Tuberculosis Day)
    4月1日愚人节(April Fools' Day)
    4月5日清明节(Tomb-sweeping Day)
    4月7日世界卫生日(World Health Day)
    4月22日世界地球日(World Earth Day)
    4月26日世界知识产权日(World Intellectual Property Day)
    5月1日国际劳动节(International Labour Day)
    5月3日世界哮喘日(World Asthma Day)
    5月4日中国青年节(Chinese Youth Day)
    5月8日世界红十字日(World Red-Cross Day)
    5月12日国际护士节(International Nurse Day)
    5月15日国际家庭日(International Family Day)
    5月17日世界电信日(World Telecommunications Day)
    5月20日全国学生营养日
    5月23日国际牛奶日(International Milk Day)
    5月31日 世界无烟日(World No-Smoking Day)
    6月1日 国际儿童节(International Children's Day)
    6月5日世界环境日(International Environment Day)
    6月6日全国爱眼日
    6月17日世界防治荒漠化和干旱日(World Day to combat desertification)
    6月23日国际奥林匹克日(International Olympic Day)
    6月25日全国土地日
    6月26日国际禁毒日(International Day Against Drug Abuse and Illicit Trafficking)
    7月1日中国*诞生日(Anniversary of the Founding of the Chinese Communist Party)
    7月1日国际建筑日(International Architecture Day)
    7月7日中国人民抗日战争纪念日
    7月11日世界人口日(World Population Day)
    8月1日中国人民解放军建军节(Army Day)
    8月12日国际青年节(International Youth Day)
    9月8日国际扫盲日(International Anti-illiteracy Day)
    9月10日中国教师节(Teacher's Day)
    9月16日中国脑健康日
    9月16日国际臭氧层保护日(International Day for the Preservation of the Ozone Layer)
    9月20日全国爱牙日
    9月21日世界停火日(World Cease-fire Day)
    9月27日世界旅游日(World Tourism Day)
    10月1日中华人民共和国国庆节(National Day)
    10月1日国际音乐日(International Music Day)
    10月1日国际老年人日(International Day of Older Persons)
    10月4日世界动物日(World Animal Day)
    10月5日世界教师日(World Teachers' Day)(联合国教科文组织确立)
    10月8日全国高血压日
    10月9日世界邮政日(World Post Day)
    10月10日世界精神卫生日(World Mental Health Day)
    10月14日世界标准日(World Standards Day)
    10月15日国际盲人节(International Day of the Blind)
    10月15日世界农村妇女日(World Rural Women's Day)
    10月16日世界粮食日(World Food Day)
    10月17日国际消除贫困日(International Day for the Eradication of Poverty)
    10月24日联合国日(United Nations Day)
    10月24日世界发展新闻日(World Development Information Day)
    10月28日中国男性健康日
    10月29日国际生物多样性日(International Biodiversity Day)
    10月31日万圣节(Halloween)
    11月8日中国记者节
    11月9日消防宣传日
    11月14日世界糖尿病日(World Diabetes Day)
    11月17日国际大学生节
    11月25日国际消除对妇女的暴力日(International Day For the elimination of Violence against Women)
    12月1日世界爱滋病日(World AIDS Day)
    12月3日世界残疾人日(World Disabled Day)
    12月4日全国法制宣传日
    12月9日世界足球日(World Football Day)
    12月25日圣诞节(Christmas Day)
    12月29日国际生物多样性日(International Biological Diversity Day)
    1月最后一个星期日国际麻风节
    3月最后一个完整周的星期一中小学生安全教育日
    春分月圆后的第一个星期日复活节(Easter Monday)(有可能是3月22-4月25日间的任一天)
    5月第二个星期日母亲节(Mother's Day)
    5月第三个星期日全国助残日
    6月第三个星期日父亲节(Father's Day)
    9月第三个星期二国际和平日(International Peace Day)
    9月第三个星期六全国国防教育日
    9月第四个星期日国际聋人节(International Day of the Deaf)
    10月的第一个星期一世界住房日(World Habitat Day)
    10月的第二个星斯一加拿大感恩节(Thanksgiving Day)
    10月第二个星期三国际减轻自然灾害日(International Day for Natural Disaster Reduction)
    10月第二个星期四世界爱眼日(World Sight Day)
    11月最后一个星期四美国感恩节(Thanksgiving Day)
      

    农历节日
    农历正月初一春节(the Spring Festival)
    农历正月十五元宵节(Lantern Festival)
    农历五月初五端午节(the Dragon-Boat Festival)
    农历七月初七乞巧节(中国情人节)(Double-Seventh Day)
    农历八月十五中秋节(the Mid-Autumn Festival)
    农历九月初九重阳节(the Double Ninth Festival)
    农历腊月初八腊八节(the laba Rice Porridge Festival)
    农历腊月二十四传统扫房日
    节日英语:国际和平日

    International Day of Peace
    September 21st 

    In 1981 the United Nations General Assembly passed resolution 36/67 declaring an International Day of Peace. In 2001, the United Nations General Assembly adopted a new resolution 55/282 declaring 21 September of each year as the International Day of Peace.

    The Assembly declared that the Day be observed as a day of global ceasefire and non-violence, an invitation to all nations and people to honour a cessation of hostilities during the Day. It invited all Member States, organizations of the United Nations system, regional and non-governmental organizations and individuals to commemorate the Day in an appropriate manner, including through education and public awareness, and to cooperate with the United Nations in establishing a global ceasefire.

    Peace Day for Young People at the United Nations

    Since 1997, the World Peace Prayer Society has assisted the United Nations Department of Public Information in producing a program for New York school children at UN Headquarters, including a World Peace Flag Ceremony. On Sept. 23, 2002, this program included greetings by Mrs. Nane Annan, Under Secretary-General Shashi Tharoor, and a videoconference with children in five countries that had recently experienced war.
    International Day of Peace Vigil

    The goal of the International Day of Peace Vigil is: "To encourage the observation of a worldwide, grassroots 24-hour vigil for peace and nonviolence on the International Day of Peace, Sunday, 21 September, in every house of worship and place of spiritual practice, by all religious and spiritually based groups and individuals, and by all men, women and children who seek peace in the world."

    This Vigil is meant to demonstrate the power of prayer and other spiritual observances in promoting peace and preventing violent conflict. Support this worldwide initiative by committing to hold a 24-hour vigil on 21 September.

    The World Peace Festival Celebrating the International Day of Peace

    This year, the annual World Peace Festival in Amenia, NY, will be held on Sunday, September 21, 2003. The Festival, always a joyful multi-cultural gathering of music and dance, activities for children, and a magnificent World Peace Prayer Ceremony with the flags of all nations, will serve as a focal point for festivities worldwide honoring the International Day of Peace.

    Chanukah(光明节)

    Every year between the end of November and the end of December, Jewish people around the world celebrate the holiday of Chanukah, the Festival of Lights. Chanukah begins on the 25th day of the Hebrew (希伯来的) month of Kislev (历法:基色娄月,即犹太教历9月,犹太国历3月,在公历11、12月间,共29或30天), but the starting date on the western calendar varies from year to year. The holiday celebrates the events which took place over 2,300 years ago in the land of Judea(朱迪亚,古巴勒斯坦南部地区,包括今巴勒斯坦南部地区和约旦的西南部地区), which is now Israel.
    Jews celebrate Chanukah to mark the victory over the Syrians and the rededication of the Jerusalem Temple. The Festival of the Lights, Chanukah, lasts for eight days to commemorate the miracle of the oil. The word Chanukah means "rededication".

    Long ago in the land of Judea there was a Syrian king, Antiochus. The king ordered the Jewish people to reject their God, their religion, their customs and their beliefs and to worship the Greek gods. There were some who did as they were told, but many refused. One who refused was Judah Maccabee.

    Judah and his four brothers formed an army and chose as their name the word "Maccabee", which means hammer. After three years of fighting, the Maccabees were finally successful in driving the Syrians out of Israel and reclaimed the Temple in Jerusalem(耶路撒冷大庙). The Maccabees wanted to clean the building and to remove the hated Greek symbols and statues. On the 25th day of the month of Kislev, the job was finished and the temple was rededicated.

    When Judah and his followers finished cleaning the temple, they wanted to light the eternal light, known as the N'er Tamid, which is present in every Jewish house of worship. Once lit, the oil lamp should never be extinguished.

    Only a tiny jug of oil was found with only enough for a single day. The oil lamp was filled and lit. Then a miracle occurred as the tiny amount of oil stayed lit not for one day, but for eight days.

    In America, families celebrate Chanukah at home. They give and receive gifts, decorate the house, entertain friends and family, eat special foods, and light the holiday menorah(犹太教神殿中用的大烛台).

    Halloween(万圣节)

    On October 31st, dozens of children dressed in costumes(节日服装)knock on their neighbors' doors and yell "Trick or Treat" when the door opens. Pirates and princesses, ghosts and popular heroes of the day all hold bags open to catch the candy or other goodies that the neighbors drop in. As they give each child a treat the neighbors exclaim over the costumes and try to guess who is under the masks.

    Since the 800's November 1st is a religious holiday known as All Saints' Day(万圣节). The Mass that was said on this day was called Allhallowmas. The evening before became known as All Hakkiw e'en, or Halloween. Like some other American celebrations, its origins lie in both pre-Christian and Christian customs.

    October 31 st was the eve of the Celtic(凯尔特人的)new year. The Celts were the ancestors of the present-day Irish, Welsh and Scottish people. On this day ghosts walked and mingled with the living, or so the Celts thought. The townspeople baked food all that day and when night fell they dressed up and tried to resemble the souls of the dead. Hoping that the ghosts would leave peacefully before midnight of the new year.

    Much later, when Christianity spread throughout Ireland and October 31 was no longer the last day of the year, Halloween became a celebration mostly for children. "Ghosts" went from door to door asking for treats, or else a trick would be played on the owners of the house. When millions of Irish people immigrated to the United States in the 1840s the tradition came with them.

    Today' school dances and neighborhood parties called "block parties" are popular among young and old alike. More and more adults celebrate Halloween. They dress up like historical or political figures and go to masquerade parties(化妆舞会). In larger cities, costumed children and their parents gather at shopping malls early in the evening. Stores and businesses give parties with games and treats for the children.Teenagers enjoy costume dances at their schools and the more outrageous the costume the better!

    Certain pranks(恶作剧)such as soaping car windows and tipping over garbage cans are expected. But partying and pranks are not the only things that Halloweeners enjoy doing. Some collect money to buy food and medicine for needy children around the world.

    Symbols of Halloween

    Halloween originated as a celebration connected with evil spirits. Witches flying on broomsticks with black cats, ghosts, goblins(小精灵)and skeletons have all evolved as symbols of Halloween. They are popular trick-or-treat costumes and decorations for greeting cards and windows. Black is one of the traditional Halloween colors, probably because Halloween festivals and traditions took place at night. In the weeks before October 31, Americans decorate windows of houses and schools with silhouettes(轮廓)of witches and black cats.

    Pumpkins are also a symbol of Halloween. The pumpkin is an orange-colored squash, and orange has become the other traditional Halloween color. Carving pumpkins into jack- o'lanterns is a Halloween custom also dating back to Ireland. A legend grew up about a man named Jack who was so stingy(吝啬的)that he was not allowed into heaven when he died, because he was a miser(吝啬鬼). He couldn't enter hell either because he had played jokes on the devil. As a result, Jack had to walk the earth with his lantern until Judgement Day(审判日). The Irish people carved scary faces out of turnips(芜菁根), beets(甜菜根)or potatoes representing "Jack of the Lantern," or Jack-o'lantern. When the Irish brought their customs to the United States, they carved faces on pumpkins because in the autumn they were more plentiful than turnips. Today jack-o'-lanterns in the windows of a house on Halloween night let costumed children know that there are goodies(糖果)waiting if they knock and say "Trick or Treat!"

    Halloween Treats

    Dried Pumpkin Seeds

    After carving your pumpkin, separate the pulp from the seeds. Rinse(冲洗)the seeds and spread them out to dry. The next day, add enough melted butter or margarine(人造黄油)to coat each seed. Spread the seeds onto a cookie sheet(甜酥饼干)and bake for 20 minutes in a 300 degree oven for 20 minutes or until they are slightly brown.

    Caramel Apples

    Take the paper wrapping off about 100 caramels(饴糖)and put them in a saucepan(炖锅). Put the saucepan over a pan of boiling water. Boil the water until the caramels melt. Put a wooden stick into the top of each apple, dip the apple into the caramel. Let them cool on wax paper and enjoy!

    Scary Stories

    No Halloween party is complete without at least one scary story. Usually one person talks in a low
    voice while everyone else crowds together on the floor or around a fire. The following is a retelling of a tale told in Britain and in North Carolina and Virginia.

    "What Do You Come For?"

    There was an old woman who lived all by herself, and she was very lonely. Sitting in the kitchen one night, she said, "Oh, I wish I had some company."

    No sooner had she spoken than down the chimney tumbled two feet from which the flesh had rotted. The old woman's eyes bulged with terror.

    Then two legs dropped to the hearth and attached themselves to the feet.

    Then a body tumbled down, then two arms, and a man's head.

    As the old woman watched, the parts came together into a great, tall man. The man danced around and around the room. Faster and faster he went. Then he stopped, and he looked into her eyes.

    "What do you come for? she asked in a small voice that shivered and shook.

    "What do I come for?" he said. "I come for YOU!"

    The narrator shouts and jumps at the person near him!

    Diwali(排灯节)

    Diwali symbolizes the victory of light over darkness. Celebrated joyously all over the country, it is a festival of wealth and prosperity.


    The essence of this light is Shri Lakshmi-arising, at the beginning of time, out of the waters at the churning of the Milky Ocean by gods and demons for a thousand years. Regarded as the goddess of love, beauty and prosperity, Lakshmi, Kamla or Padma (Sanskrit words for lotus), the beloved consort of Vishnu, along with the dearly loved pot-bellied, elephant headed, auspicious god of the Hindu theogony, Siri Ganesha, is a presiding deity of the festival of lights. They are worshipped in every household so that the year may be full of prosperity. Throughout the night a lamp is kept burning before her image so that she may continue to dwell in the house and bestow upon it the wealth of life.

    'Dipavali' means a row of lights ('Diwali' is simply a corrupt form of it) and the festival is so called because of the illuminations that mark the celebrations.

    Every Hindu home, rich or poor, it given a spring cleaning a few days prior to the auspicious day, whitewashed and adorned in a festive way. Rows of little earthen lamps illuminate terraces and gardens, walls and courtyards, outer and inner precincts of a temple or a palace. That it was so from ancient times is borne by kings and travelers who have recorded the celebrations.

    King Harsha described it as 'Dipapratipadotsava' and King Bhoja calls it 'Sukharati' (happy night) and describes how Lakshmi was venerated and worshipped at dusk and lamps lit in her honour on roadsides and river banks, on hill and tree, in home and temple. To Jimutavahana it was the 'vow of a happy night' (Sukharatrivarta')

    Another legend speaks of how Bali was deprived of his kingdom by Vishnu on this day. The good Daitya king, through austerities and devotion, had defeated the great Indra himself. The gods thus feeling humbled appeal to Vishnu for protection. Vishnu becoming manifest in his Dwarf incarnation (Vamana) begs Bali for as much land as he (Vishnu) can over in three steps. Having obtained the boon, Vishnu covers heaven and earth in two strides and would have covered the world in the third, but then respecting Bali's goodness and generosity, he stopped short and left the nether world to the Datiya king. The legend, found in Rig-Veda, tells of Vishnu's three strides-over earth, heaven and the nether world of Patala, symbolizing apparently the rising, culmination and setting of the sun. A zodiacal allegory couched in mythological terms, it points to the setting of the light of the sun and the emergence of the darkness associated with the lower realm. Changes of season, of course, but it tells of the heart of a people and their unlimited delight in life, in light, burning not outside but in the deeper recesses of the nether regions of cosmos and man. Why else should folk recall Bali and his reign on this day? We learn that in Maharashtra, effigies of Bali in rice-flour and cow-dung are prepared by womenfolk who worship and invoke his blessings. Skanda Purana also refers to Bali being worshipped with fruits and flowers on this auspicious day by drawing this image on the ground in different hues.

    United Nations Day(联合国日)

    United Nations Day was established by Presidential Proclamation(总统令) to commemorate the establishment of the United Nations in 1945.

    It is celebrated very generally in all states and American possessions, and by all eighty-one countries, which are members of the United Nations for the purpose of informing the people of the world as to the aims, purposes, and achievements of the UN.

    The name "United Nations" was devised by United States President Franklin D. Roosevelt and was first used in the "Declaration by United Nations" of January 1, 1942, during the Second World War, when representatives of 26 nations pledged their governments to continue fighting together against the Axis Powers(轴心国).

    The representatives of 50 countries at the United Nations Conference drew up the United Nations Charter(联合国宪章) on International Organization, which met at San Francisco from April 25 to June 26, 1945. Those delegates deliberated on the basis of proposals worked out by the representatives of China, the Soviet Union, and United Kingdom in the United States at Dumbarton Oaks(敦巴顿橡树园,在美国首都华盛顿效区) from August to October of 1944. The representatives of the 50 countries signed the Charter on June 26, 1945. Poland, which was not represented at the Conference, signed it later and became one the original 51 Member States.

    The United Nations officially came into existence on October 24, 1945, when the Charter had been ratified by China, France, The Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, United States and by a majority of other signatories. United Nations Day is celebrated on October 24 each year.

    In order to stress the charter's importance, in 1947 the General Assembly of the U.N. passed a resolution that October 24 shall hereafter(从此以后) be officially called United Nations Day, and shall be devoted to making known to the people of the world the aims and achievements of the United Nations, and to gaining their support for the work of the United Nations.

    It was apparent, and also quite important, that the general public should be informed about the content and purposes of the United Nations; therefore an entire week-United Nations Week-was set aside in October, with its chief observance(庆祝) on United Nations Day, October 24.

    By 1956, the American committee for the United Nations promoted the celebration of United Nations week. The official American Association for the United Nations sent out information and suggestions for programs with this advice: This is United Nations Week. The success of the United Nations in building world peace depends on all of us-on our won understanding and support; know how it works, and what it is doing. Help the United Nations help all of us to a peaceful future.

    In some towns there is a public rally(集会), perhaps at the City Hall, with the Stars and Stripes displayed with the flag of the United Nations. Speakers stress the accomplishments of the organization. Some shop windows feature products and dress of other lands. A town may put on an "International Festival" with songs and dances. During the week there are forums and panel discussions. An enjoy blending for United Nations Day is a banquet with foreign dishes.

    An important part of the week's observance is the setting up of information centers, where literature on the work of the United Nations may be obtained.

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