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  • 建立时间: 2008-05-20
  • 更新时间: 2012-08-31

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  • 我拿什么救你

    2012-8-31

    2012年8月29日(译后感:乱翻书,读到介绍美国超验主义创始人、作家爱默生的生平介绍。其中用到“finding his niche”一词来讲述其职业生涯中放弃牧师而以写作讲学为志的华丽转身,深感妙不可言。最早接触niche这个词还是在大学时代,老师用了很多方法来解释niche market,理解上应该是一个市场的切入点,也有说是小众市场等等,不过总的来说此词还是属于只可意会的范畴,连百度百科中也索性将其音译为利基市场。niche原意为用来放置塑像的壁龛,因其尺寸合意的狭小引伸到市场营销领域就变成在市场竞争中找到一个规模小影响大的领域获得成功,在纷繁琳琅满目的商品中我突然想到“无印良品”的案例,没有太多的科技含量,只是以便利化整洁化日常生活的琐碎物品为主打从而找到了“niche market”,品牌形象鲜明并触动享受宅生活的心弦。将niche引入到人生历程中,就更可圈可点了,暗合天生我材必有用的意境。上帝造人千差万别,对于他人的天资与其羡慕嫉妒恨,不如坚守自己的niche,自是一片意趣盎然的天地。 语言交流中不可言传之处也可以窥见中西文化的差异,niche在中文中找不到合适的语词表达,也反映出数千年以统一标准来生产评价个体的文化传统,试想如果中国的教育体制能够帮助每个人发现发展自己的niche,教育学习才能恢复到求智慧的本义,社会生产力必也能实现进一步的解放。

          尽管如此,中国仍在30余年改革开放之后成长为全球第二大经济体,以出口为导向的经济增长模式使中国持有大量外汇储备,也成为欧美等发达国家争取的对象。几年前,中国表示要多元化外汇储备,提高外汇储备的投资效率,引发美国担忧,积极争取中国继续大规模持有美国国债;现如今,欧洲主权债务危机,用巨额外汇储备购买欧元救助基金债券居然成了欧洲诸国走出危机的生命线。看来用以中国低廉的劳动力去拯救欧美后工业化国家才能维持中国低附加值出口商品的市场,经济才能持续增长,已经是中国在当前经济转型不能立竿见影的形势下不得已的选择。“调结构、转方式“任重道远,也只能感叹”我拿什么救你。” 

     

         

    By Request, Merkel Is Returning to China for Economic Talks By MELISSA EDDY

    我拿什么救你

    BERLIN — Continuing a fast pace of international diplomacy, Chancellor Angela Merkel is visiting China on Thursday and Friday for the second time in seven months, acting as a conduit both for German business and the European Union.

    发自柏林—默克尔展开了密集的外交之旅,她将在周四和周五访问中国,这也是7个月内的第二次访问,以期为德国商界和欧盟振兴找到一条出路。

    Accompanied by seven ministers and the most influential business delegation of her six trips to date to China, Ms. Merkel is expected to explain the current state of the euro crisis to a curious Chinese leadership, and perhaps to seek Chinese investment in Europe’s bailout funds. Both countries — two of the world’s biggest exporters — have weathered the economic crisis relatively well to date, but China’s growth is now sputtering while debt is crippling some European countries and even German growth is slowing markedly.

    默克尔此次到访中国,阵容豪华,7位部长和她六次访问中国随行的强大商业团队陪同出访。默克尔希望向中国领导层说明欧元危机的情况,可能还希望中国能够投资欧元救助债券。德国和中国都是全球出口大国,也都相对平稳的度过了全球金融危机,但是中国的增长已经开始放缓,而受欧债危机影响,德国增长也显著放缓了。

    Since Ms. Merkel returned from a vacation in the Alps two weeks ago, she has visited Canada and Moldova; played host to President François Hollande of France and the Greek and Italian prime ministers for talks on the euro crisis; and met several domestic obligations as well.

    两周前,默克尔结束了在阿尔卑斯山的休假后,她已经访问了加拿大等国,也接待了法国总统奥朗的和希腊,意大利首相,讨论了欧元危机,当然也履行了她的内政。

    Germany’s status as the economic powerhouse in Europe appears to be lending her increasing weight as an effective spokeswoman for the 17-nation euro zone and the 27 members of the European Union.

    德国现在被视为欧洲经济的发动机,这也令她成为非常有份量的17国欧元区和27国欧盟的发言人,影响力与日俱增。

    The trip is her second in seven months, although such consultations normally take place only once a year. German officials said that Prime Minister Wen Jiabao — who himself has visited Germany six times — had requested the chancellor’s return before a Chinese leadership turnover that will see him hand over power early next year.

    本次访问是她7个月内第二次访问中国,一般这样的访问都是一年一次。德国官员说因为温家宝在任内已经六次出访德国,他邀请默克尔在中国领导层换届之前回访中国。

    “It was very important to the prime minister that these governmental consultations took place again, before the change of leadership in the party, to institutionalize them,” a German official told reporters in Berlin.

    德国一位官员在柏林告诉记者:“对于温总理来说,这次访问非常重要,他希望能够在换届之前看到政府层面的磋商成果能够落地。”

    Such high-level government exchanges have been a way for postwar Germany to deepen relations with allies like France, Israel, Poland and Russia. The consultations with China, which began in June 2011 when Mr. Wen and 13 of his ministers visited Berlin, have resulted in a significant increase in trade between the two countries, which reached $169 billion in 2011, an 18.9 percent increase from 2010.

    这样的高层面的政府交流对于战后德国来说也是深化双边关系的渠道,就如德法,德国和以色列,德国与波兰,德国与俄罗斯的关系一样。和中国的磋商是在2011年6月开始的,当时温家宝和13名部长访问柏林,两国达成的成果是双边贸易的增进,在2011年,贸易额达到1690亿没劲,比较2010年上涨了18.9%。

    Nearly half of all exports from the European Union to China now come from Germany, with machines and luxury cars especially in demand. The European Union is also the biggest destination for Chinese exports.

    欧盟有近一半到中国的出口来自德国,尤其是机械产品和豪华车。欧盟也是中国最大的出口市场。

    But recent figures show the Chinese economy cooling down; growth for 2012 is projected to be about 8 percent, against 9.2 percent in 2011.

    但是最近的数据表明中国的经济也在放缓,2012年经济增长率可能只能达到8%,而2011年是9.2%。

    In Germany, where the economy is largely driven by exports, there are indications that the euro crisis, now into its third year, is beginning to take a toll.

    德国经济也是出口导向的,现在有迹象表明随着欧元危机进入第三个年头,德国经济也将受到影响。

    The Chinese prime minister has indicated a willingness to invest in Europe’s bailout funds, and Ms. Merkel may seek firmer commitments on this front.

    中国总理已经表示愿意购买欧洲救助基金债券,所以默克尔此次来正是寻求承诺。

    The German economy posted 0.3 percent growth in the second quarter of 2012, and a leading survey of business sentiment by the Ifo Institute showed German companies beginning to express greater pessimism.

    德国经济在2012年第二个季度只有0.3%的增长率,德国一些数据公司已经开始对德国经济表示出更深的悲观情绪。

    In China, Mr. Wen has been visiting coastal factories to better manage a downturn that some analysts fear could lead to huge layoffs and social unrest.

    在中国,温家宝一直在沿海工厂调研,希望能够找到平稳度过的办法,以免出现大规模裁员和社会不稳定的情况。

    Keeping trade between two of the world’s biggest exporters buoyant seems to be high on the agenda.

    让两个出口大国之间的贸易稳定运行也是访问议程中的重要一项。

    Following a day of meetings in Beijing with Mr. Wen and other officials, including his designated successor, Li Keqiang, the chancellor will head to Tianjin, where she is to hold talks with business representatives and visit an Airbus factory where A320 airliners are assembled.

    在和温家宝总理以及其继任者李克强会见一天之后,默克尔将率团到访天津,和天津商界代表座谈并参观空中客车在天津的组装厂。

    Although government officials say Ms. Merkel’s visit will involve a tour and private talks, the German news media have reported that Airbus’s parent company, European Aeronautic Defense & Space, is hoping to secure an order for 100 of the planes from China during the trip. Beijing is holding back, demanding that it be excluded from an E.U. system designed to curb carbon transmissions.

    尽管政府官员说默克尔访问行程中包括一天的考察和私人会谈,但是媒体报道空客的母公司EADS希望能够从中国获得制造100架飞机的订单。中国的砝码是,这个订单必须不受欧洲碳排放交易制度的影响。

    The Chinese, along with other Asian nations, are pushing the European Union to wait for a global system, but the Europeans are insistent on pushing through the curbs.

    中国和其他亚洲国家一道希望欧盟能够一起和世界联手推出全球性的遏制碳排放的交易体系,但是欧洲坚持推进自己的欧洲体系。

    Such differences cut to the crux of the problems between the two nations, which are trade rivals as much as they are partners. Critics charge that closer German-Chinese ties pose a danger for Europe, coming as it struggles to develop a more strategic approach to China.

    这样的分歧会对解决双方的问题增加困难,他们既是贸易伙伴也是竞争对手。批评者认为如果德国和中国关系太近,会对欧洲造成危险,所以德国应该对中国有更加战略性的政策。undefined

    Chinese companies were the largest investor in Germany last year, with 158 projects, or almost 20 percent of the total, according to Germany Trade and Invest, the government’s economic development agency, surpassing the United States for the first time.

    中国公司在去年成为德国最大的投资者,已经有158个项目,占到投资总额的20%,这是德国贸易投资署的报告,也表示中国第一次超过了美国在德国的投资。undefined

    The 40th anniversary of diplomatic relations between the two countries will be Oct. 1. Fans of the Berlin Zoo can hope that Mr. Wen might note this anniversary with a special gift, after the panda Bao Bao died this month at age 34. The panda was a gift from Hua Guofeng, the Chinese leader at the time, to the West German chancellor Helmut Schmidt.

    10月1日两国将迎来建交40周年,柏林动物园的粉丝们希望温家宝能够将有特殊的礼物,因为上次赠送的熊猫已经于上月去世了,享年34岁,是华国锋总理送的,也是当时中国的领导人。undefined

    David Barboza contributed reporting from Shanghai.

  • 遏制

    2011-11-30

    History of diplomacy

    Dealing with the enemy

    George Kennan invented the American post-war policy of “containment” of the Soviet Union. His biography, 30 years in the making, fills in the detail

    Decades of interviews later, Mr Gaddis, who is now 70, had become accustomed to his students “speculating sombrely about which of us might go first”. Even Kennan felt sorry for “poor John”; in 2003 he lamented the “serious burden” of his own “unnatural longevity”.

    采访凯南数十年之后,今年70岁的GAddis的学生们开始非常冷静的去思量谁会先走呢?Gaddis对此也习惯了。就是凯南自己也总是为GAddis感到有些歉意,在2003年,他对自己超乎寻常的高寿所带来的沉重的负担叹息不已。

    It was only in 2005, when death finally claimed Kennan at the age of 101, that Mr Gaddis could begin thinking about publishing this long-awaited biography.

    凯南在2005年终于以101岁的高龄驾鹤西归,Gaddis终于可以开始思考出版这期盼已久的传记的问题了。

    The extraordinary length of the book’s gestation meant that much changed between conception and publication. Had it appeared in the mid-1980s, the context would have been cold-war stalemate; in the early 1990s, celebration; a decade ago in 2001, concern about terrorism.

    这本书的出版经历了漫长的酝酿期,这意味着在本书立意和出版之间形势发生了极大的改变。如果是在1980年代中期出版,背景就会是冷战的僵持,如果是1990年代早期,就是对冷战胜利的庆祝,如果是在10年前的2001年,就是对恐怖主义的关注。

    Because “George F. Kennan: An American Life” finally arrives in the uneasy year of 2011, its context is economic misery and questions about the future of American dominance in international affairs.

    但是“凯南:美国人生”一书最后是面世于多事之秋的2011年,我们面临的是经济上的困苦,和对美国在国际事务中主导作用的重重疑问。

    Mr Gaddis is unequivocal on this topic. He told the New York Times in 2004 that “American imperial power…has been a remarkable force for good, for democracy, for prosperity.”

    Gaddis在美国是否继续主导国际社会的问题上持毫不怀疑的态度。他在2004年告诉纽约时报,“美国的实力以民主繁荣为目标,永不衰落。”

    He has also expressed his admiration for the former presidents, Ronald Reagan and George Bush junior, and their versions of “grand strategy”, a topic he now teaches at Yale University.

    他还表示对美国前总统里根和小布什的赞赏,推崇他们提出的“大战略”,这是他现在在耶鲁大学教授的课题。

    All of these developments have naturally given rise to much speculation. Could Mr Gaddis, who admits that he speaks no foreign languages, get on top of the mountain of material and do credit to such an international polymath? Would his own views emerge along with Kennan’s? The 784-page answer to both these questions is yes.

    所有这些发展都自然而然引发了人们的重重疑问。Gaddis承认自己不懂外语,他能驾驭浩瀚的材料吗?他能公正的书写外交奇才凯南的生平吗?他自己的观点会不会带入到凯南的观点中去呢?通读这784页的传记,答案是肯定的。

    Mr Gaddis has mastered the sources that came his way over the decades. The resulting biography is engaging and lucid. The first half of the book almost has the sweep of a novel.

    Gaddis已经比较好的驾驭了他在数十年间掌握的材料,所以传记写的真切写的流畅,全书的前半部分更有小说之情境。

    Readers join Kennan in Germany as the Nazis rise; in Norway in 1931 as the awkward young man meets the parents of his fiancée, to whom he would remain married for 73 years; in the Soviet Union in 1933 as he establishes the first American embassy;in Czechoslovakia as Adolf Hitler arrives and the world descends into another war; and back in Moscow again in 1945 when he receives skin-crawling personal compliments from Joseph Stalin on his Russian language skills.  纳粹崛起时期,凯南在德国的经历;1931年的挪威,凯南年轻时见岳父母的情境,这一婚姻持续了73年;1933年美国在苏联建立第一个大使馆;希特勒兵临捷克,将世界拖入另一场战争,在1945年的莫斯科,斯大林不惜溢美之词赞扬凯南俄语的娴熟;这些描述都会让读者有身临其境之感。

    The chapter detailing Kennan’s breakthrough—achieved by redesigning American foreign policy at a stroke, via his 5,000-word “Long Telegram” from Moscow to Washington, DC, in 1946—is particularly gripping. As he himself put it: “My reputation was made. My voice now carried.”书中有一章节对凯南外交生涯中的突破性成就更是面面俱到,扣人心弦。凯南在1946年从莫斯科向华盛顿发回了长达5000字的电报,他当时自己说,历史将因此记住我,世界将听到我的声音。

     

    Before this, Kennan was a promising young officer in the American foreign service; after it, he joined the top ranks of American strategists. His arguments convinced the Truman administration that efforts to continue wartime co-operation with Russia were fruitless. America should recognise the Soviet Union as a new kind of enemy, one seeking to destroy “our traditional way of life”. Rather than fighting a conventional war, America would need to contain Soviet hostility firmly and consistently over the long term. As America resisted Moscow more and more, Kennan felt it was crucial that his country maintain the “health and vigour of our own society” and not become a garrison state.

    After the “Long Telegram”, Kennan returned to Washington and founded the State Department’s influential Policy Planning Staff. But, according to Mr Gaddis, his prestige had peaked by 1948. After that, Kennan became increasingly sidelined for opposing what he judged to be excessive militarisation of his containment strategy. Yet he continued to condemn overly militarised policies for the rest of his life.

    Kennan took particular offence at the attitude of the Reagan administration, which he viewed as “simply childish, inexcusably childish, unworthy of people charged with the responsibility for conducting the affairs of a great power in an endangered world.” Nor did the end of the cold war change his mind. In 1992 Kennan made a point of stating that “nobody ‘won’ the cold war”. It had been a long, costly tragedy, “fuelled on both sides by unreal and exaggerated estimates of the intentions and strength of the other side.”

    Mr Gaddis disagrees. He closes his study by condemning Kennan for having “blinded” himself to the fact that, in Mr Gaddis’s opinion, Reagan brought Kennan’s “strategy to its successful conclusion”. If Kennan were alive, he would probably still disagree, and not without reason. If the elder man’s concern for the costs of bellicose foreign policy, rather than the younger man’s enthusiasm for imperial exercise of American power, had dominated the last decade, it would have made for a sounder grand strategy. In ways that this biography seems not entirely to appreciate, Kennan’s far-sighted opposition to American over-militarisation makes his personal career history less gripping than his legacy.

  • Is America following Japan?

    2011-11-20

    Is America following Japan?

    Two things to remember about Japan

    Nov 14th 2011, 22:57 by G.I. | WASHINGTON

    JAPANESE policymakers must watch Europe’s unfolding train wreck with mixed feelings. On the one hand, they take no joy in the economic and financial damage a vital trading partner is inflicting on itself. On the other hand, for a change they’re not the ones whose judgment is being dissected, debated and criticised.

    日本政策制定者们在观察欧洲没完没了的债务危机时,一定是五味杂陈的。一方面,欧洲是日本重要的贸易伙伴,欧债危机对日本也会造成严重的经济金融影响,对此,日本没有幸灾乐祸的理由。另一方面,舆论的焦点不在日本,日本的模式没有成为批评、辩论和解剖的对象。

    That changes for one night, however. Tonight in my old stomping ground of Toronto, the following proposition will be debated: “Be it resolved that North America faces a Japan-style era of high unemployment and slow growth.” Paul Krugman and David Rosenberg take the “pro” side, while Larry Summers and Ian Bremmer represent the “con” side.

    但是一夜之间,这一切又改变了。今晚再多伦多的土地上,这一观点将是辩论的主题“美国是否在面对日本式的高失业低增长的状态呢?如果是该如何解决呢?”Paul Krugman和David是认为美国已经走上了日本道路,Larry和Ian则认为不这样认为。

    Japan has been studied so thoroughly that I may subtract rather than add value here. Nonetheless, there are two things I find get less attention than they deserve. They come in the form of a pop quiz:

    日本模式已经被研究的非常透彻了,我这里也不可能增加任何有价值的观点。但是,我发现关于日本还是有两个要素没有得到应有的关注。我想用流行的小测试的方式来说明。

    1.     How much of the gap between Japanese and American economic performance since the mid-1990s can be explained by demographics?

    从1990年代中期以来,日本和美国的经济表现之间的差距有多少可以用数据表格来说明?

    2.     How much did fiscal tightening contribute to Japan’s steep recession of 1998?

    日本1998年遭遇了严重的经济衰退,其中财政紧缩政策起了多大的作用?

    The answer to (1) is “more than you think”, and the answer to (2) is “less than you think”. Okay, I don't really know what you think. Still, when I learned the answers, I was surprised.

    对于第一个问题的答案是,“比你想象的要多。”,对于第二个问题的答案则是“比你想象的要少。”确实,我也许不知你是怎样想的,但当我得知这些答案之后,我还是惊讶万分。

    First, on demographics. Between 1994 and 2008 American GDP grew 3% a year while Japan's grew 1.1%.

    首先,从数据上说,在1994年至2008年间,美国经济年均增长3%,日本1.1%。

    That sounds dismal, but be sure you use the right benchmark. Japan’s potential growth slowed dramatically in the mid 1990s. As the chart at right illustrates, Japan’s working-age population at that time began a long decline, shrinking 0.4% per year over the period while America’s grew 1.2% according to the OECD. That 1.6 point differential can explain most of the difference in growth. Japanese productivity growth averaged a perfectly respectable 2.1% from 1994 to 2008, the same as America’s. At the time it was a disappointment because it was a sharp deceleration from prior decades. In retrospect, though, it may have been inevitable given that Japan had, technologically, almost caught up to America. (An overregulated and inefficient service sector made it difficult to close the remaining gap.)

    Of course, poor policy and the dynamics of post-crisis deleveraging played a part. Japan has underperformed even its lowered benchmark; unemployment has trended higher. But when extrapolating to the United States, the demographic outlook should get more attention than it does.

    Second, fiscal policy. In April, 1997, the government raised Japan’s consumption tax. That is now routinely cited as a cautionary tale against premature fiscal tightening since it was followed by a steep recession. But a closer examination suggests the tax increase alone cannot explain the length and depth of the 1997-98 slump. Private consumption actually grew in the quarter after the tax increase. Two other massive shocks played important parts. In July, Thailand devalued, touching off the Asian crisis, a major negative for Japanese exports. Then, in November, a series of banks and investment banks collapsed: Sanyo Securities, Hokkaido Takushoku Bank, Yamaichi Securities and Tokuyo City Bank. “Major financial institutions collapsed almost on a weekly basis in the month of November 1997,” a retrospective by the BIS notes. It was, for Japan, tantamount to Bear Stearns, Lehman Brothers, AIG, and Washington Mutual going bust all at once. The following year, Long Term Credit Bank failed. These events did enormous damage to financial-market confidence and contributed to a serious credit crunch.

    This does not exonerate the fiscal tightening; it was, and remains, an error. But the more important lesson is that bad luck is as important as bad policy. Analysing the consequences of any policy must incorporate how bad luck may skew the outcome. The Japanese government wouldn’t have raised taxes if it had known what was in store. Fiscal tightening for America is a bad idea in its own right, but it’s particularly ill advised given that stuff happens. Like Europe.

  • 市场经济五颜六色 印度特色引人瞩目

    2011-11-16

    State-controlled firms

    The power and the glory

    India has its own form of state-backed capitalism too

    前言:译后掩卷思量,发现自己竟不能概括此篇到底对印度的政府主导式市场经济有哪些观点,如此看来,这次的翻译是失败了。其实,在我这也是意料之中,因为已有将近1个月的时间,我精神恍惚、反应迟钝、几近脑残。总是觉得如果有翻译的压力,会让我在阅读时对文字对篇章布局变得敏感,但奇怪的是我在书房在书店在书中的字里行间来来回回苦苦寻觅,仍是找不到温润我心的片言只语。如此状态下随意找篇文章翻译,也权当作是kill the time的无奈之举了。

       

    我也倒安于这样昏昏沉沉的日子,只是怕失语症卷土重来加剧对工作的能力恐慌。仔细分析,失语症源于我被要求的书写世界的视角和我感受观察世界的视角存着根本的差异,每一次的书写都必须承受平衡这差异产生的巨大张力,即使在我努力积累书写范式语汇的情境之下,面对很多简单的写作任务,我还是会有无法动笔的尴尬。上周有机会到清江流域出差,也是我心向往之的风景,原生态的山水风光、旧时蜀道的斑驳幽静、地球历史的沧海桑田、间或还有19世纪中国全球化进程的遗迹等等,都可以引我遐想,徘徊在“这样的风景、这样的生活、这样的人”的意境之中。不过,在政府主导之下,这风景中的静谧从容之气韵将很快凭着规划布局招商引资项目建设等转变为踌躅满志之神采,孰优孰劣我也说不清楚,只徒增些困惑。但译完印度特色的市场经济一文之后,我突然想自己一直将政府与市场的关系作为主要的线索来理解大千世界的精彩传奇,不妨也可以将此线索放到自己的工作之中,既做一个参与者,也是一个观察员,这样不仅是缓解张力的重要渠道,也能令到很多命题作文呈现出“入乎其内,出乎其外”的气度。

       反思至此,平素看起来雄心勃勃的“将***打造*****”的句式也露出许多温情了。

      

          

    Oct 22nd 2011 | from the print edition

    We’re from the government, and we’re here to help

    IF YOU SIT in many places in India, whether in the office of the boss of Infosys in Bangalore or in a suburban home, your host may clutch a remote control and appear anxious. You are not the cause of this distress. Your host is waiting for a power cut, after which the remote will be used to switch the air conditioning back on. Power, more than any other industry, captures the prevalence of the state in Indian business—and the harm it can do. Private capital has poured into building power stations, but most other bits of the supply chain are in the hands of the state. Often this set-up fails to deliver.

    在印度,不论你身处班加罗尔INFOSY总裁的办公室,还是在郊区的家中,你都会看到主人仅仅抓住一个远程遥控器,看起来十分焦急的样子。当然并不是你的存在令他们焦急,他们在等待断电,而断电之后就要靠遥控器来重新启动空调装备了。电力在印度的各行各业中比其它任何产业都重要,当然电力也会有很大的负面影响。私人资本大量涌入发电行业,但是供应链的很多环节都是控制在政府手里的。因此发电站的电力往往不能输送出去。

    When people think of state capitalism, China springs to mind, with its giant and opaque government-controlled firms. But India, more cuddly and less competent, is not too dissimilar.Some 40% of the profits of its 100 biggest listed firms come from state-controlled ones. In finance, energy and natural resources, they control at least two-thirds of production. Most were partially privatised over the past two decades, letting in a small proportion of outside shareholders. The latest example was Coal India, the biggest producer of India’s main fuel. It was listed in 2010.

    当人们想到国家资本主义的时候,往往会想到中国,想到中国由政府控制的巨大规模的央企。但是在印度,尽管效率低一些,规模小一些,但并没有太大的不同。在印度,上市的最大的100家企业所生产的40%的利润都来自国有企业。在金融,能源和自然资源领域,它们控制了产量的三分之二。大多数都是在过去20年间经历了不完整的私有化进程,少量的股权由外部股东持有。最近的例子就是印度煤业,是印度主要能源的最大生产商,在2010年上市。

    Over time, the zeal to sell big-enough chunks of these firms to enable them to become more independent has dissipated. But today’s halfway house is not all that bad. In aggregate, the 24 state outfits in the top 100 generated a 17% return on equity last financial year, on a par with the private sector, and profits almost doubled in the past five years. Privatisation has made some of them more efficient. Bharat Heavy Electricals, which makes kit for power stations, holds its own against Chinese competitors. And State Bank of India (SBI) is as tech-savvy as its private rivals.随着时间的推移,印度政府通过售卖这些公司的股份让它们更加独立的热情逐渐蒸发了。但是今天这些半官半私的企业也不是一无是处的。总体来说,在前100强中的24家国有集团在去年财政年度生产了17%的资产回报,和私营企业的情况持平,而利润在过去5年几乎翻倍了。私有化也使其中一些企业更有效率。Bharat Heavy 电力公司是为发电站生产急救用品的,和中国的竞争对手难分伯仲。印度中央银行也十分重视科技的应用,这一点和私营企业没有不同。

    Even if India doesn’t have the stomach for full privatisation, it is letting in the private sector in other, more subtle ways. A creeping retreat of the state has taken place in many industries thanks to competition. Thus two of India’s most successful industries, air travel and telecoms, are dominated by private companies, even though the original state monopolists remain under government control.

    即使印度没有实现完全私有化的意愿,但是私有资本还是以其他的方式悄然进入各个领域。由于竞争的关系,民进国退的现象在很多行业都发生了。这样印度最成功的两个行业,分别是民航和通信业,都是由私有公司控制的,尽管原有的国有垄断部门还是在政府的控制之下。

    Public-private partnerships are also common on big infrastructure projects. You might conclude that India, like China, has found its own equilibrium between the state and market forces.

    官商合办的企业体系在很多大的基础设施工程上也十分普遍。你可能会得出结论说印度和中国一样已经在国有和市场两种模式间找到了平衡。

    But that view is premature. Public-private partnerships are all the rage, but more effort must be made to ensure the private bit of them gets a reasonable return. GMR, the infrastructure firm that built and part-operates Delhi’s new airport, is losing money on the project. Its boss, G.M. Rao, says he is “very confident” that a settlement will be reached allowing it to raise tariffs and extend its charges. But more clarity will be needed to attract private money for future projects of this kind.但是这样的观点是不成熟的。官商合作体制表面的繁荣后面,还应该付出更多努力来保证私营部门能够获得合理的回报。GMR是一家基础设施建设公司,修建并且部分参与了德里新机场的管理工作,现在却因为该项目承受亏损。其老板,Rao说他很有信心,可以达成一项提高关税和相关收费的安排。但是对于如何吸引更多的民间资本参与类似的项目建设中,是需要理清的课题。

    The big listed firms, meanwhile, are subject to meddling. Managers are appointed by the state. The energy companies are forced by the government to subsidise the costs of some kinds of fuel, to the tune of billions of dollars, by smoothing retail prices. Coal India’s allocations of production seem to be decided at the highest level of government.

    这些大型的上市公司同时又受到政府的干预。公司的管理层都是由政府指派的,能源公司受到政府的压力要补贴原油的成本,金额可能达到数十亿美金,通常是以降低零售价的方式。印度煤业集团的产量似乎也是由政府的高层决定的。

    And SBI, although it denies it furiously, loaned heavily and patriotically during 2008-09 to offset a slump in credit from private banks. In 2011 it has booked big write-offs and had its credit rating downgraded as it digests the binge. A big chunk of the economy is in effect run by political fiat.

    印度央行对此坚决否认,但实际上在2008年至2009年间,一直在私营央行信用下滑之时,向企业发放了大量贷款,很多贷款都是政策性的。在2011年,该银行又免除了很多需要偿还的贷款,因此,

    Allowing competition while neither privatising nor killing off the original state incumbents means big losses at some dying public firms. Air India and MTNL, a telecoms company, between them lost almost $2 billion in the fiscal year 2009-10. Of 217 industrial enterprises owned by the central government in 2010, 59 made losses (see chart 7). At the state-government level there are perhaps another 850-odd government-owned firms, including zombie local electricity distributors. Their losses would wipe out most of the profits made by the listed giants.

    如果既不推进私有化进程,也不放任那些国有的小企业,同时还要继续促进竞争的话,就可能意味着在一些奄奄一息的国有企业中会遭遇较大规模的亏损。印度航空和MTNL在2009年至2010年财政年度亏损近20亿美元。印度央企的217家企业中,有59家都是亏损的。国有企业可能还包括了其它形式政府拥有的企业,有850家,包括毫无生气的一些电力分销商,这些公司的亏损几乎和上市的大型央企赚取的利润持平了。

    Profit and loss is the least of it. India’s inexorably growing power crisis is a bottleneck that threatens to hobble its overall growth rate.

    利润和损失还只是小问题,印度日益严重的能源危机是印度经济增长的瓶颈。

     An orthodox Western remedy would be to let in BHP Billiton, an Australian mining colossus, to dig up India’s coal faster, while selling off the bankrupt electricity boards to private firms, who have made dramatic improvements in the few places in India where they have taken charge.

    按照正统的西方式的解决之道就是允许BHP Billiton一家澳大利亚矿业巨头来加速开采印度煤矿资源,同时将濒临破产的电力公司出售给私人企业,这些私人企业在这些领域进步很快。

    But if the state is not prepared to let the private sector tackle its rotten parts, then it will need to adopt a more strong-armed, Chinese-style approach to making sure the state sector delivers. The middle way it is currently pursuing isn’t working—as those power cuts testify.

    但是如果政府还不打算要私人企业来接管其经营不善的领域,政府就需要采取更加强势的带有中国特色的方式来保证国有企业是可以提高效率的。印度目前采取的中间道路模式并没有产生预期的效果,经常的断电就是一例。

  • 印度IT业三十而立 华丽转身还是中年危机

    2011-11-06

     

     

    Indian technology firms

    Seeking to avoid a mid-life crisis

    India’s most dynamic, but no longer so youthful, industry tries to reinvent itself

    Nov 5th 2011 | MUMBAI | from the print edition

    印度IT三十而立    华丽转是中年危机?

    (前言:每次在一段时间的忙碌焦虑之后,总想凭着读书让心灵重新温润起来,透过翻译让世界再次生动起来,只有如此才能实现心智和身体上的完全恢复。不过是先翻译还是先读书,竟然成了我花了一周时间都没有解决的问题,心神散漫至此,不禁又要对生活对生命发出悲观消极的感慨来。终于还是在周末选到这篇印度IT业转型的文章来翻译。译后,我的大脑对家事国事天下事总算有了些微弱的反应。

        

     

    INDIA’S technology firms are no longer spring chickens. Infosys had its 30th birthday this year and its lead founder retired, hailed as a visionary by his colleagues and celebrated as the man who kick-started the country’s first world-class industry. Yet judged by their share prices of late, the three big firms, TCS, Infosys and Wipro, are still giddy, uncertain things. Last month TCS’s shares, which had swaggered earlier in the year, slumped as it posted disappointing quarterly figures. Wipro’s shares are well down on the year and this week’s news of quarterly profits little changed from a year ago sent them a bit lower still.

     

    印度的科技企不再是羽翼未丰的小INFOSYS今年已三十而立了,其领军创始人也宣布退休,他被同行益为极富远见卓识之人,撬动了印度在世界级产业中拥有一席之地的发展进程。但是如果我们看一下印度三大科技业巨头的股市表现,又会有另一番判断了,这三大公司是TCSINFOSYSWIPRO,它们在股市中还不是那么步伐稳健,前途明朗。TCS在今年早些时候在股市高歌猛进一阵,但上月公布的季度报表令市场大失所望,股价急挫。WIPRO的股价今年一直走低,本周公布的季度利润和去年相比长进不大,股价再走低。

     

    The volatility partly reflects investors’ fears of a depression in the rich world, where the three make the bulk of their money. But it is also a symptom of mild paranoia about whether these firms can in their dotage still deliver perky growth. The worry is that they might go the way of Nokia: for years the Finnish handset firm maintained high margins, in defiance of its many doubters. Then, suddenly, the naysayers were proved right.

    股价的波反映了投对发达国家目前面的衰退的担心,因三大巨的盈利主要来自达国家。但是也是市场惯有的对进入中年期的公司能否继续焕发生命力的多疑症。市心存这样的疑,三大巨会不会重走的老路。家芬的手机制造商多年来在一片疑声中持了良好的业绩和股市表,但是突然,唱衰者一

     

    Regarding the slump in rich economies, the recent past does offer a chilly precedent. During the Wall Street crisis in mid-2009 the IT firms’ revenue growth slowed almost to zero as customers, especially financial ones, slashed spending. But activity bounced back smartly (see chart) as clients recovered their nerve and redoubled efforts to cut costs through outsourcing and reorganising their back offices.

    顾发达国家经济危机之刚刚过去不久的得乍暖寒。2009年年中,华尔街危机最深重的候,客尤其是金融界的客削剪开支,IT的收入增几近.客能从恐慌中恢复来,并且通和外包减少成本的候,IT才重新活起来。

     

    Today the hope is that customers will be less panicky. All of the big three insist there has been no sudden slowdown in spending and are continuing their colossal hiring programmes in India (together they now employ almost half a million people, almost all in their home country). Natarajan Chandrasekaran, TCS’s chief executive, has visited more than 100 customers worldwide in the past three months and says they are resolute. “They are going about their business in a systematic way. They realise the situation in the US and Europe is going to take time to sort out.”

    今天我们只能把希望寄托在顾客不要那般恐慌上。三大巨头都坚持认为在消费方面没有明显的下滑,它们在印度也继续大规模的雇用员工。(现在它们雇用了近50万员工,仅仅是在印度一国)TCSCEO Natarajan说在过去三个月已经走访了超过100个顾客,遍布世界各地,这些顾客都信心满满,坚定不移。“它们已经在非常系统的运营,它们认识到欧洲和美国的现状需要一段时间才能理清。”

     

     

     

    But even if “Financial Armageddon: The Sequel” does not happen, what about the industry’s long-term growth potential? “I don’t think it is over by a long stretch,” says K.V. Kamath, the chairman of Infosys. “Indian IT is just starting to come of age.” Optimists point to a steady widening of the boundaries of outsourcing and argue it will continue. Pioneers such as General Electric turned to India’s firms first, followed by the banks; the public sector in the West may be next. Hospital bosses in Ohio may not yet be thinking about running their diagnostic-test results from India, but clever people in Mumbai are. Likewise the habit of outsourcing should expand further from its core geography of rich English-speaking countries to places like southern Europe, Japan and emerging markets. India’s IT-industry body, NASSCOM, reckons the total potential market will triple between 2008 and 2020.

     

    但是即使金融末日不会到来,印度科技长远发展潜力何在呢?KamathInfosys的主席,“我不认为潜力耗尽,印度的IT业刚刚成年。”乐观者指出外包产业界可以不断延生会持下去。外包界的前GE公司最初看上印度的公司,然后欧美国家的跟踪而至。下一个可能是公共服务领域了。在俄亥俄州医院的老板可能想不到印度来承担果的业务,但是孟的商家能看到商机。同理外包就会从核心的的国家展到南欧,日本和新国家。印度IT界的主管部NASSCOM认为潜在的市场价值会在2008年至2020年增长三倍。

  • 每个人心中都有一座断背山,每座断背山都期待一片艳阳天

    2011-6-28

    June 26, 2011

    (译者注:“政如农工,日夜思之”。最近一段时间以来,对于我的本职工作也是如此兢兢业业。只是越思之念之,就越不知该从何着手,想想大千世界每天都在上演新的传奇,为什么我却不知如何在工作中加进新鲜的元素呢?苟且之中,译上此篇,缓解焦虑。如托尔斯泰5岁就认识到的“人生不是享乐,而是一项沉重的任务”,我在光阴的流逝中竟然发展出如此的思维脉络:一个上午过去,而今天是周二,离一周的一半就不远了,再到周三,再及六月过去,半年总结都写完了,夏季过去不久,就开始圣诞春节的,回顾2011成就,规划2012工作,这一沉重的任务又是完成了多少分之一呀。)

    2011年6月26日

    Gay Marriage: A Milestone

    每个人心中都有一座断背山,每座断背山都期待一片艳阳天

    New York State has made a powerful and principled choice by giving all couples the right to wed and enjoy the legal rights of marriage. It is a proud moment for New Yorkers, thousands of whom took to the streets on Sunday to celebrate this step forward. But this moment does not erase the bigotry against gays and lesbians enshrined in the federal Defense of Marriage Act, which denies federal recognition of same-sex marriages and allows any state to refuse to recognize another state’s unions. 

    纽约州给予所有相爱的人以举行婚礼和婚姻的法定权利,这是一个了不起的决定。对于纽约人来说,他们无比自豪,周日上万纽约人走向街头庆祝这历史性的一步。但是联邦的婚姻法案中,是不同意美国联邦政府承认同性恋婚姻的合法性的,同时对于其它州认可的同性婚姻,任何州都可以拒绝承认,这一点联邦法案是坚定不移的。因此,这样一个时刻也不会令媒体停止发布关于同性恋者的偏执煽动性报道。

    Though there was unnecessary secrecy in the negotiations, Gov. Andrew Cuomo made a determined effort to achieve marriage equality in New York. He shares credit with the four Republican state senators who bucked their party and threats from conservatives to do what they knew was right. State Senators James Alesi, Roy McDonald, Mark Grisanti and Stephen Saland, all from upstate districts, deserve the support of their communities. They showed the kind of strength that is extremely hard to find in today’s politics. 

    纽约州关于此项决定的谈判过程有一些需要保密的地方,其实也是完全必要的。州长Adrew意志坚决要在纽约州为同性婚姻争取到平等的权利。在纽约州,有四名共和党的州参议员与共和党的意见相左,州长Adrew就和他们携手来威胁保守派人士,坚持要做他们认为正确的事业。这四位参议员James,Roy,Mark和Stephen都是来自纽约州北部,他们也应该得到他们所在社区的支持,他们显示出了在今天的政治生活中罕见的勇气。

    In drafting a compromise, however, Senator Saland and other Republicans insisted on language that carves out exceptions for religious institutions and not-for-profit corporations affiliated with those religious entities. That provision allows those tax-exempt entities to refuse to marry a same-sex couple or to allow the use of their buildings or services for weddings or wedding parties. There was simply no need for these exemptions, since churches are protected under both the federal Constitution and New York law from being required to marry anyone against their beliefs. Equally troubling, an “inseverability clause” in the act appears to make it impossible for any court to invalidate part of the law without invalidating the whole law — raising questions about what happens to couples during an appeal. 

    在拟定带有妥协意味的草案时,参议员Saland和其它共和党人都坚持要列出对同性婚姻的例外条件,比如宗教机构和附属于宗教实体的非盈利性机构可以不承认同性婚姻。这些机构通常不用交税,它们可以拒绝为同性婚姻服务,拒绝同性婚姻在他们的教堂举行婚礼或其它婚庆活动。其实,完全没有必要加上这样的例外条款,因为教堂受到联邦宪法和纽约州法律的保护,可以拒绝为任何违背它们信仰的人士举办婚礼。同样麻烦的是,这一“不服务条款”似乎令任何法院在宣布适用法的一部分无效时就必须宣布整部法律无效,这对同性婚姻者遇到诉讼时会遭遇什么提出了问题。

    While some civil rights advocates are optimistic that these provisions are relatively minor, we are deeply troubled by their discriminatory intent. The whole purpose of this law should be to expand civil rights without shedding other protections in the process. 

    现在一些民权倡导者都非常乐观,认为这些例外条款无关紧要,但是我们还是为其中表现出的歧视性意图困扰。整部法律的主旨应该是在整个过程中不添加任何例外的拓展民权。

    The marriage equality law was such a powerful finale to this year’s legislative session that a few other important measures may be relegated to the footnotes. Lawmakers passed a limited ethics bill for legislators and statewide elected officials, a modest expansion of rent regulations for millions of New York City residents, an important five-year tuition plan for the state’s universities — all moves in the right direction. 

    婚姻平等法确实是今年立法季非常浓墨重彩的一笔,其它一些重要的举措可能都只能放在注脚的位置了。除此之外,立法者还通过对数千万纽约居民的房屋租金案,对州立大学的5年期学费案,和全州选举官员和议员的道义案等,这些在方向上都是正确的。

    The one big misstep is a property-tax cap of about 2 percent a year that will severely hurt schools and services in poorer communities. 

    但是有一步是大错特错的,就是对财产税设置每年2%的上限,这会严重伤害到贫困社区的学校和服务。

    This legislative session will be remembered for New York’s acceptance of same-sex marriage, a milestone in the national fight for this fundamental freedom. Five other states, along with the District of Columbia, allow same-sex couples to marry. But more than three dozen states define marriage as between a man and a woman. For gays and lesbians, the battle for freedom from discrimination continues.

    本次立法季最终将为世人记住的还是纽约州承认了同性婚姻,这是美国推进基本自由的道路上的里程碑。其它5个州,包括哥伦比亚也允许同性结婚。但是还是有30多个州执行婚姻是男女结合的定义。对于男同性恋和女同性恋者来说,反抗歧视,争取自由的斗争还在继续。(译者注:“政如农工,日夜思之”。最近一段时间以来,对于我的本职工作也是如此兢兢业业。只是越思之念之,就越不知该从何着手,想想大千世界每天都在上演新的传奇,为什么我却不知如何在工作中加进新鲜的元素呢?苟且之中,译上此篇,缓解焦虑。如托尔斯泰5岁就认识到的“人生不是享乐,而是一项沉重的任务”,我在光阴的流逝中竟然发展出如此的思维脉络:一个上午过去,而今天是周二,离一周的一半就不远了,再到周三,再及六月过去,半年总结都写完了,夏季过去不久,就开始圣诞春节的,回顾2011成就,规划2012工作,这一沉重的任务又是完成了多少分之一呀。)

     

  • IBM庆百岁大寿,苹果谷歌学转型经验

    2011-6-19

    June 18, 2011

    2011年6月18日(前言:IBM是百年老店对我实在是新鲜的知识,也是我一定要译这篇较长深度报道的动因。译过还是译犹味尽,这样一家我们在个人电脑飞入寻常百姓家的时代才耳熟能详的企业怎会在电脑问世数十年前就创立了呢?还好有百度谷歌可以迅速解惑。据百度百科,1911年三个独立的公司(列表机公司,计算表公司和国际时代唱片公司)合并而成CTR公司,1917年,CTR公司以国际商用机器有限公司进军加拿大市场,更名为国际商用机器公司即IBM。二战期间,盟军广泛使用了IBM的设备做军事计算,后勤和其它军需之用,还为美国海军建了第一个大规模的自动数码电脑,不过IBM日内瓦办事处也积极参与支持纳粹的暴行。50年代,IBM成为美国空军自动防御系统电脑发展的主要承包商。60年代,IBM是美国八大电脑公司中最大的一家,其大多数竞争对手现在都不复存在,其成功也令其遭遇美国司法部开展的反垄断诉讼。90年代,IBM遭遇发展危机,开始将重点由硬件转移到软件和服务,我们所熟知的联想收购IBM个人电脑业务的一幕也是其转型的重大举措之一。现在IBM“智慧的地球”计划时期未来十年发展的核心,该战略大致为“将感应器嵌入和装备到电网,铁路,建筑,大坝,油气管等现实物体中,形成物物相联,然后通过超级计算机和云计算将其整合,实现社会与物理世界的融合,在此基础上,人类可以更加精细和动态的管理生产生活,达到智慧的状态,提高资源利用率和生产力水平,改善人与自然的关系。”这一迟来的知识在这个雨后初晴的周末仍带给我新知的快乐兴奋,由此又不禁要谈谈翻译如何拓宽了我精神生活之维度。

         从2004年底准备人事部的二级口译和笔译考试算起,坚持练习翻译和从事需要翻译技能的业务工作已经有7年时间了,最初只把翻译当作我10多年如一日不间断学习英语的延伸,不想我的精神生活也因翻译而变得充实丰盈,不必经历叔本华所讲的无聊之痛。一是翻译总能帮助我发现知识的盲点,领悟黑格尔所言“熟知并非真知”,因而总可以保持对知识对世界的赤子之心。就比如今天籍着这篇文章才知道IBM这个无处不在的企业已经有100年历史了。二是翻译也促进我学习中文,一方面比较两种语言表述形式的差异,这样口译笔译在我都如每天必练头脑体操,紧张又轻快,乐在其中。另一方面也可以用更好的语词和句法来翻译英语中的长句大词。不过,因为时间知识有限,很多译作还是不堪卒读。三是翻译在不知不觉中让我了解到英语世界领导人发表演讲和书写新闻报道新闻评论的方式,对治疗长期困扰我的失语症也有一定的功效。比如这段时间练习口译了希拉里,盖特纳和拜登在第三轮中美经济对话上的演讲,同情又惊讶地发现原来英语世界为一项活动的上演也不得不准备三个演讲词呀,这三个演讲词口吻不同角度不同但内容却交叉相似,一定也令写作团队搜肠刮肚吧。于是,我仔细研究了其演讲的开场白,内容的起承转合,还真是受益匪浅呀。再说新闻报道和新闻评论,这也是我现在找到的新的比较领域,因此还没有收获很多见解。只有一点感受是中文的深度新闻报道往往用几个小标题分成几个部分来论述,但是英语世界中的深度报道这一手法并不突出,只在经济学人中的部分报道中可以看到。而这篇讲科技企业转型的,也只是从IBM百年大庆引出,将微软,苹果,谷歌的现状一一端出。要是用中文一定要取上这样几个小标题:微软风光不再,转型前景堪忧;谷歌挟信息而令诸侯;苹果繁荣背后危机暗涌。

      
    IBM庆百岁大寿,微软苹果学转型经验
    By STEVE LOHR

    在这里输入译文

    AS it turned 100 last weekI.B.Mwas looking remarkably spryConsumer technologies get all theattention these daysbut the company has quietly thrived by selling to corporations andgovernmentsProfits are strongits portfolio of products and services looks robustand its sharesare near a record highI.B.M.’s stock-market value passed Googles earlier this yearNot bad for acorporate centenarian.

    IBM上周刚过了百岁生日,现在的IBM活力十足。以个人消费者为市场的技术最近虽然事焦点,但是IBM的市场目标定位始终是公司企业和政府,不过发展势头良好。利润丰厚,其产品服务组合还有着很强的生命力,股票价值也接近历史最高值。今年早些时候,IBM的市值还一度超过了谷歌,这对于一家百年老店来说确是不的表现。

    Yetnot so long agoI.B.M.’s corporate survival was at stakeIn the early 1990s, it nearly ran outof moneyIts mainframe business was reeling under pressure from the lower-cost technology ofpersonal computing.

    但是,不久之前,IBM还面临着公司存亡的严峻挑战。在1990年代早期,IBM就面对资金困境。因为来自成本较低的个人电脑业务的冲击,其主营业务承受了巨大的压力。

    New leadership was brought inand thousands of workers were laid offIt was part of thecompanys painful journey to what might be called “post-monopoly prosperity” — that isa newpath to corporate success once a dominant product is no longer the turbocharged engine ofgrowth and profit it once was.

    公司在当时换了领导层,解雇了上万员工。这是公司在经历“后垄断繁荣期”阵痛中的一部分,一度主导市场的产品不再是公司利润和发展的引擎,公司不得不开辟新的发展路径。

    I.B.Mfaced the challenge that all great companies do sooner or later — they dominatethey loseitand then they re-create themselves or not,” observes George FColonythe chief executive ofForrester Research.

    Colony,是Forrester研究机构的首席执行官,他说,IBM所面对的挑战是所有伟大的企业或早或晚都要面对的,他们曾经一度主导市场,然后失去主导地位,他们或者重新在新的领域崛起也或者不能重新崛起。

    I.B.Mmet the challengemoved beyond the mainframe and  查看(2687) 评论(0)

  • IBM庆百岁大寿,苹果谷歌学转型经验

    2011-6-19

    June 18, 2011

    2011年6月18日(前言:IBM是百年老店对我实在是新鲜的知识,也是我一定要译这篇较长深度报道的动因。译过还是译犹味尽,这样一家我们在个人电脑飞入寻常百姓家的时代才耳熟能详的企业怎会在电脑问世数十年前就创立了呢?还好有百度谷歌可以迅速解惑。据百度百科,1911年三个独立的公司(列表机公司,计算表公司和国际时代唱片公司)合并而成CTR公司,1917年,CTR公司以国际商用机器有限公司进军加拿大市场,更名为国际商用机器公司即IBM。二战期间,盟军广泛使用了IBM的设备做军事计算,后勤和其它军需之用,还为美国海军建了第一个大规模的自动数码电脑,不过IBM日内瓦办事处也积极参与支持纳粹的暴行。50年代,IBM成为美国空军自动防御系统电脑发展的主要承包商。60年代,IBM是美国八大电脑公司中最大的一家,其大多数竞争对手现在都不复存在,其成功也令其遭遇美国司法部开展的反垄断诉讼。90年代,IBM遭遇发展危机,开始将重点由硬件转移到软件和服务,我们所熟知的联想收购IBM个人电脑业务的一幕也是其转型的重大举措之一。现在IBM“智慧的地球”计划时期未来十年发展的核心,该战略大致为“将感应器嵌入和装备到电网,铁路,建筑,大坝,油气管等现实物体中,形成物物相联,然后通过超级计算机和云计算将其整合,实现社会与物理世界的融合,在此基础上,人类可以更加精细和动态的管理生产生活,达到智慧的状态,提高资源利用率和生产力水平,改善人与自然的关系。”这一迟来的知识在这个雨后初晴的周末仍带给我新知的快乐兴奋,由此又不禁要谈谈翻译如何拓宽了我精神生活之维度。

         从2004年底准备人事部的二级口译和笔译考试算起,坚持练习翻译和从事需要翻译技能的业务工作已经有7年时间了,最初只把翻译当作我10多年如一日不间断学习英语的延伸,不想我的精神生活也因翻译而变得充实丰盈,不必经历叔本华所讲的无聊之痛。一是翻译总能帮助我发现知识的盲点,领悟黑格尔所言“熟知并非真知”,因而总可以保持对知识对世界的赤子之心。就比如今天籍着这篇文章才知道IBM这个无处不在的企业已经有100年历史了。二是翻译也促进我学习中文,一方面比较两种语言表述形式的差异,这样口译笔译在我都如每天必练头脑体操,紧张又轻快,乐在其中。另一方面也可以用更好的语词和句法来翻译英语中的长句大词。不过,因为时间知识有限,很多译作还是不堪卒读。三是翻译在不知不觉中让我了解到英语世界领导人发表演讲和书写新闻报道新闻评论的方式,对治疗长期困扰我的失语症也有一定的功效。比如这段时间练习口译了希拉里,盖特纳和拜登在第三轮中美经济对话上的演讲,同情又惊讶地发现原来英语世界为一项活动的上演也不得不准备三个演讲词呀,这三个演讲词口吻不同角度不同但内容却交叉相似,一定也令写作团队搜肠刮肚吧。于是,我仔细研究了其演讲的开场白,内容的起承转合,还真是受益匪浅呀。再说新闻报道和新闻评论,这也是我现在找到的新的比较领域,因此还没有收获很多见解。只有一点感受是中文的深度新闻报道往往用几个小标题分成几个部分来论述,但是英语世界中的深度报道这一手法并不突出,只在经济学人中的部分报道中可以看到。而这篇讲科技企业转型的,也只是从IBM百年大庆引出,将微软,苹果,谷歌的现状一一端出。要是用中文一定要取上这样几个小标题:微软风光不再,转型前景堪忧;谷歌挟信息而令诸侯;苹果繁荣背后危机暗涌。

      
    IBM庆百岁大寿,微软苹果学转型经验
    By STEVE LOHR

    在这里输入译文

    AS it turned 100 last weekI.B.Mwas looking remarkably spryConsumer technologies get all theattention these daysbut the company has quietly thrived by selling to corporations andgovernmentsProfits are strongits portfolio of products and services looks robustand its sharesare near a record highI.B.M.’s stock-market value passed Googles earlier this yearNot bad for acorporate centenarian.

    IBM上周刚过了百岁生日,现在的IBM活力十足。以个人消费者为市场的技术最近虽然事焦点,但是IBM的市场目标定位始终是公司企业和政府,不过发展势头良好。利润丰厚,其产品服务组合还有着很强的生命力,股票价值也接近历史最高值。今年早些时候,IBM的市值还一度超过了谷歌,这对于一家百年老店来说确是不的表现。

    Yetnot so long agoI.B.M.’s corporate survival was at stakeIn the early 1990s, it nearly ran outof moneyIts mainframe business was reeling under pressure from the lower-cost technology ofpersonal computing.

    但是,不久之前,IBM还面临着公司存亡的严峻挑战。在1990年代早期,IBM就面对资金困境。因为来自成本较低的个人电脑业务的冲击,其主营业务承受了巨大的压力。

    New leadership was brought inand thousands of workers were laid offIt was part of thecompanys painful journey to what might be called “post-monopoly prosperity” — that isa newpath to corporate success once a dominant product is no longer the turbocharged engine ofgrowth and profit it once was.

    公司在当时换了领导层,解雇了上万员工。这是公司在经历“后垄断繁荣期”阵痛中的一部分,一度主导市场的产品不再是公司利润和发展的引擎,公司不得不开辟新的发展路径。

    I.B.Mfaced the challenge that all great companies do sooner or later — they dominatethey loseitand then they re-create themselves or not,” observes George FColonythe chief executive ofForrester Research.

    Colony,是Forrester研究机构的首席执行官,他说,IBM所面对的挑战是所有伟大的企业或早或晚都要面对的,他们曾经一度主导市场,然后失去主导地位,他们或者重新在新的领域崛起也或者不能重新崛起。

    I.B.Mmet the challengemoved beyond the mainframe and  查看(2603) 评论(0)

  • 人人网登录纽交所 互联网再掀泡沫论

    2011-6-12

    前言:美国时间5月4日,人人公司在美国纽交所上市,发行价14美元,开盘报19.6美元,上涨39%,收盘报18.01美元。时隔一月又一周,我才在惊讶之中获知这已是旧闻的新闻,百度上浏览发现关于全球社交网企业登录纽交所引爆新一轮互联网泡沫的争论也早已如火如荼,这对于一向标榜与时俱进的我,对于互联网须臾不离的我来说实在有些不堪。事已至此,也只能以5月工作之忙碌和丰富来开脱了。虽是扎扎实实上气不接下气地忙碌了一个多月,有近半月是每天加班到10点以后,甚至到凌晨3点。但是夹杂在繁忙和焦急之中还是匆匆去到一些熟悉或陌生的地方,也生发出许多感触来。

          中国是一个拥有5000年悠久历史的文明古国。也因为此,几乎在中国每一个地方的概况介绍中都会有这样一句“***山水风光秀美奇特,历史文化底蕴深厚。”但奔波神州大地,掠过散落各地的古迹,我总会因大多数古迹都是改革后新建而无心欣赏。不过这一次在短时间内密集看了黄鹤楼,荆州古城,荆州博物馆,巴东神农溪,奉节白帝城,丰都鬼城等,蓦然同情起中华民族在多舛历史中为保存历史记忆的纠结了。在中国这个文明古国有百年以上历史的建筑已不多见,一般认为中国古代建筑多为木制结构抗打击能力差,加之历史上自然灾害,农民起义,内忧外患此起彼伏,导致历史建筑灰飞烟灭。而如今我们能够倘佯其中抚今追昔的历史建筑大致可以分为以下几类。一是追溯数千年历史,在原址屡毁屡建的。最典型的就要数黄鹤楼了,始建于三国时期的黄鹤楼,最后一座“清楼”毁于光绪10年(1884年),毛泽东在1927年来到武昌,写下了著名的“黄鹤知何去,剩有游人处”的诗句。现今的黄鹤楼则是85年重建的,跻身5A景区,每天游人如织。同为三大名楼之一的岳阳楼也是类似命运。二是幸运保留有数百上千年历史的。比如道教胜地武当山,奉节白帝城,荆州古城墙等都是明朝修建至今保存相对完好的。而涪陵的白鹤梁,因历代文人骚客在江中巨石上直抒胸臆可谓全球最古老微博,因三峡工程建水下博物馆保存之,但仍显模糊,看后还是难免失望。三是原址不在,修旧如旧的。因为三峡大坝等水利工程的建设,为挽救古迹不被淹没,将原址建筑拆除时一砖一瓦搬到新址重建的,比如秭归屈原祠,石宝寨等。四是重大考古发现。考古发现一般因沉眠地下而得以保存完好,秦始皇兵马俑最为典型。五是晚清或民国时期有殖民色彩的建筑,因中西合壁并采用石制结构,至今仍有较高的使用价值和观赏价值。厦门的鼓浪屿,重庆北温泉,还有每年樱花季堪比世博热的武大樱园都应属此类。想除了这些,应该也还有别样经历的古迹,待以后奔波途中再慢慢补上。不过这一次心中一直无法释怀的就是丰都鬼城,去年去时大多数还是民国修建,也算是百年古迹。今年再去,却是焕然一新,一年间已经推到重来,只在百姓的反对呼声中,保留了山顶的于清康熙年间修建的天子殿。想想百年之后游人再去,也还是一段历史。

         

          

           

    前言:美国时间5月4日,人人公司在美国纽交所上市,发行价14美元,开盘报19.6美元,上涨39%,收盘报18.01美元。时隔一月又一周,我才在惊讶之中获知这已是旧闻的新闻,百度上浏览发现关于全球社交网企业登录纽交所引爆新一轮互联网泡沫的争论也早已如火如荼,这对于一向标榜与时俱进的我,对于互联网须臾不离的我来说实在有些不堪。事已至此,也只能以5月工作之忙碌和丰富来开脱了。虽是扎扎实实上气不接下气地忙碌了一个多月,有近半月是每天加班到10点以后,甚至到凌晨3点。但是夹杂在繁忙和焦急之中还是匆匆去到一些熟悉或陌生的地方,也生发出许多感触来。

          中国是一个拥有5000年悠久历史的文明古国。也因为此,几乎在中国每一个地方的概况介绍中都会有这样一句“***山水风光秀美奇特,历史文化底蕴深厚。”但奔波神州大地,掠过散落各地的古迹,我总会因大多数古迹都是改革后新建而无心欣赏。不过这一次在短时间内密集看了黄鹤楼,荆州古城,荆州博物馆,巴东神农溪,奉节白帝城,丰都鬼城等,蓦然同情起中华民族在多舛历史中为保存历史记忆的纠结了。在中国这个文明古国有百年以上历史的建筑已不多见,一般认为中国古代建筑多为木制结构抗打击能力差,加之历史上自然灾害,农民起义,内忧外患此起彼伏,导致历史建筑灰飞烟灭。而如今我们能够倘佯其中抚今追昔的历史建筑大致可以分为以下几类。一是追溯数千年历史,在原址屡毁屡建的。最典型的就要数黄鹤楼了,始建于三国时期的黄鹤楼,最后一座“清楼”毁于光绪10年(1884年),毛泽东在1927年来到武昌,写下了著名的“黄鹤知何去,剩有游人处”的诗句。现今的黄鹤楼则是85年重建的,跻身5A景区,每天游人如织。同为三大名楼之一的岳阳楼也是类似命运。二是幸运保留有数百上千年历史的。比如道教胜地武当山,奉节白帝城,荆州古城墙等都是明朝修建至今保存相对完好的。而涪陵的白鹤梁,因历代文人骚客在江中巨石上直抒胸臆可谓全球最古老微博,因三峡工程建水下博物馆保存之,但仍显模糊,看后还是难免失望。三是原址不在,修旧如旧的。因为三峡大坝等水利工程的建设,为挽救古迹不被淹没,将原址建筑拆除时一砖一瓦搬到新址重建的,比如秭归屈原祠,石宝寨等。四是重大考古发现。考古发现一般因沉眠地下而得以保存完好,秦始皇兵马俑最为典型。我想除了这些,应该也还有别样经历的古迹,待以后奔波途中再慢慢补上。不过这一次心中一直无法释怀的就是丰都鬼城,去年去时大多数还是民国修建,也算是百年古迹。今年再去,却是焕然一新,一年间已经推到重来,只在百姓的反对呼声中,保留了山顶的于清康熙年间修建的天子殿。想想百年之后游人再去,也还是一段历史。

         

          

           

    Social-media firms see champagneothers see bubbles
    人人网登录纽交所,互联网再掀泡沫论
    Jun 9th 2011 | SAN FRANCISCO | from the print edition
    2011年6月9日
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    INITIAL public offerings (IPOsof internet start-ups are like busesyou wait ages for one to arrive,then several turn up at onceAfter years in the doldrumsthe IPO market for technology firms hassuddenly sprung to life again in America.

    互联网时代的新兴公司的IPO就像是坐公共汽车,你等啊等等来一辆,然后一下子来了好几辆。在经过几年的沉寂之后,美国科技公司的IPO市场一下子复苏勃发起来。

    LinkedIna social network for professionalskicked things off last month with a flotation on theNew York Stock Exchange (NYSEthat valued it at $8.8 billion—572 times its profits last yearatthe end of the first day of tradingNow a number of web outfitsincluding Grouponwhich offersonline couponsand Pandora Mediaan internet-radio firmare queuing to join the partyOtherstart-ups could soon add themselves to the crowdnotably Zyngathe creator of addictive onlinegames such as FarmVillein which players grow turnips and breed pigs.

    Linkedin是面向专业人士的社交网站,上个月打开了新兴公司IPO繁荣之门,在第一天上市时就达到88亿美元的价值,高于其去年利润的572倍。现在一系列新的网络公司,包括Groupon是致力于提供网上团购的,还有Pandora传媒,一家网上电台都在排队IPO。其它新兴公司也会很快加入,比如Zynga,是网上游戏公司的鼻祖,通过这些网上游戏人们可以养猪等等。

    Web companies from ChinaRussia and elsewhere are also rushing to list on American exchanges.Shortly after LinkedIns stunning debutwhich saw its share price more than doubleYandex,Russias largest search enginefloated its shares on the NYSEIts price soared by more than 50%
  • 经济数据凄凄惨惨 政府之手欲罢不能

    2011-5-31


    The Numbers Are Grim

    A month ago, when an initial gauge of first-quarter economic growth came in surprisingly weak, many policy makers and economists expected the bad news to prove fleeting. But when revised data were released last week, the growth estimate remained stuck at an annual rate of 1.8 percent, compared with 3.1 percent at the end of last year.

    一个月以前,初步估计的一个季度的经济增长数据出炉,情况不容乐观,很多政策制定者和经济学家们都希望坏消息转瞬即逝,但是当上周修正后的数据公布后,经济增长还是维持在1.8%的低位,而去年底这个数据是3.1%.

    More troubling in the latest figures, consumer spending — the largest component of the economy — was especially slow. Stagnant wages and higher prices for gas and food are squeezing family budgets, while falling home equity hurts consumer confidence. That suggests more bad news to come.

    最新的数据更是令人担忧,消费者的花费,这是美国经济中最重要的组成部分,尤其之低。工资停滞不前,油价食品价格上涨都在压缩着家庭的预算,而房屋价格下滑又伤害了消费者信心。这意味着坏消息还会源源不断。

    When consumers are constrained, so is hiring, because without customers, employers are hard pressed to retain workers or make new hires. A recent Labor Department report showed a greater-than-expected rise in the number of people claiming jobless benefits even as private-sector economic forecasts are being revised downward — both very bad omens for continued job growth.

    当消费者花费被抑制,雇佣员工也会遭遇同样境遇,因为如果没有顾客,雇主要去留住员工或者招募新员工要承受很大的压力。一项最新的劳工部报告表明即使在对私有经济增长的预测调低之后,申请失业救济的人数也比预期增长要快,这些对于就业机会的增加都是不好的预兆。

    Republican lawmakers have responded to renewed signs of weakness with a jobs plan that prescribes more of the same “fixes” that Republicans always recommend no matter the problem: mainly high-end tax cuts, deregulation, more domestic oil drilling and federal spending cuts.

    共和党的立法会议员对这些经济疲弱迹象做出了反应,他们提出了一个就业计划,开出的处方可以说和共和党对任何其它问题开出的处方如出一辙,即对高端人士减税,减少政府管制,多开采国内原油和联邦预算削减。

    The White House has offered sounder ideas, including job retraining, plans to boost educational achievement and tax increases to help cover needed spending. But its economic team is mainly focused on negotiations to raise the debt limit, presumably parrying Republican demands for deep spending cuts that could weaken the economy further while still reaching an agreement on the necessary increase.

    白宫已经提出了更加切实的想法,包括继续教育,提高教育成果,和增加税收来支付需要的开支。但是其经济团队还是把注意力放在就提高债务上限的谈判上,回避共和党要进一步削减开支的要求,削减开支可能会进一步令经济走弱,同时又试图和共和党在必要增加的开支上达成协议。

    The grim numbers tell an unavoidable truth: The economy is not growing nearly fast enough to dent unemployment. Unfortunately, no one in Washington is pushing policies to promote stronger growth now.

    这些凄凄惨惨的经济数据还是告诉我们一个不可回避的真实情况,就是经济增长的速度不够快不能够降低失业率。不幸的是,华盛顿没有一个人在推进可以促成经济增长的政策。

    The sinkholes in the economy should be obvious. Most prominently, the housing market is still awful, and state and local government budgets are still a mess. Conditions apparently have to get worse before deficit-obsessed policy makers will be ready to address them, including with bolstered foreclosure relief and more fiscal aid to states. More delay would only imperil the recovery, such as it is. And without a strong recovery, it will be even harder to repair the budget. Continued hard times means low tax revenues and high safety-net spending.

    经济运行中的负面因素多。最显著的就是房地产市场依然萎靡,各州和地方政府预算还是混乱。情况还会变得更加糟糕,如果那些赤字强迫症政策制定者们不准备去解决的话,包括对各州提供财政援助,争取对房产资不抵债族的宽限。再拖延下去只会损害到经济恢复,就像已经发生的这样。而没有强有力的恢复,要去平衡预算更加难上加难。艰难时代继续下去就意味着税收收入减少和更加多的社保支出。

    If Washington won’t do what is needed to make things better, there are still things that can be done to try to keep the economy from getting worse.

    如果华盛顿不去做让事情转机必要的事情,至少还是可以去做不让事情变得更加糟糕的事情。

    The administration could work to ease the rules for refinancing mortgages owned by Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac, the government-run mortgage giants. Easier refinancings would lower monthly payments for potentially hundreds of thousands of borrowers in good standing, and in that way, free up spending money to boost the economy.

    政府可以对两房公司的债务再融资的规定放松一点,这样可以减少数以十万计的经济情况较好人士的月供,这样一来就可以有更多的钱用于消费,经济就可以被刺激起来了。

    The Federal Reserve, for its part, must be prepared to continue measures to bolster the economy as needed, even if that means looser policy for longer than it originally planned. Democrats in Congress must lay the groundwork for an inevitable fight over extending federal unemployment benefits, which expire at the end of this year.美联储应该继续采取措施来刺激经济,即使这意味着要比其执行宽松政策的时间要长。在今年年底联邦失业救济的法案又要过期,届时是否延期又是不可避免的艰难一战,国会的民主党会提前做好准备。

    There’s a long way to go before the economy will thrive without government help.

    所以在经济确定走上正轨之前,政府之手还是欲罢不能。


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